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美国环境执法特点及其启示

秦 虎 张建宇

秦 虎, 张建宇. 美国环境执法特点及其启示[J]. 环境科学研究, 2005, 18(1): 40-44.
引用本文: 秦 虎, 张建宇. 美国环境执法特点及其启示[J]. 环境科学研究, 2005, 18(1): 40-44.
QIN Hu, ZHANG Jian-yu. The Features of the Environmental Enforcement in the U.S. And Their Illumination[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2005, 18(1): 40-44.
Citation: QIN Hu, ZHANG Jian-yu. The Features of the Environmental Enforcement in the U.S. And Their Illumination[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2005, 18(1): 40-44.

美国环境执法特点及其启示

The Features of the Environmental Enforcement in the U.S. And Their Illumination

  • 摘要: 从美国环保局的权力、地位、守法援助、守法激励、守法监督、民事与刑事执法、经济处罚额计算以及公众参与和执法协调等方面总结了美国的环境执法经验,得出兼顾环境和市场经济目标,执法与守法相结合,恩威并重、科学执法,民主、公平执法4条执法启示,供我国环境执法借鉴.

     

  • [1] Harry S Havens. Creation of a department of environmental protection (GAO/T-RCED-89-52) [R]. Washington D C: General Accounting Office(GAO), 1989.1-5.
    [2] Environmetal Protection Agency ( EPA ), FY 2004 summaries of the EPA''s budget [EB/OL]. http://www. epa. gov/ocfo/budget/2004/2004bib. pdf,2004-09-09.
    [3] James F Hinchman. Creation of a department of environmental protection (GAO/T-RCED-93-39 ) [R]. Washington D C: General Accounting Office(GAO), 1993.2.
    [4] Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Fiscal Year 2005-federal programs by agency and account: Environmental Protection Agency[EB/OL]. http://www. whitehouse. gov/omb/budget/fy2005/sheets/27_ 20.xls,2004-09-09.
    [5] Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA). Compliance and environmental sewardship, FY 2005 annual performance plan and congressional justification[EB/OL]. http://www. epa. gov/ocfo/budget/2004/g05final. pdf, 2004-09-09.
    [6] Steven Ferry. Environmental law: examples and explanations [M]. New York: Aspen Publisher Inc, 2003.4,5.
    [7] 美国司法部(DOJ)网站环境与自然资源处.关于司法部环境保护方面的职责[EB/OL].http://www.usdoj.gov/enrd/,2004-02-26/2004-09-10.US DOJ. The information on the responsibility of DOJ [EB/OL]. http://www. usdoj. gov/enrd/,2004-02-26/2004-09-10.
    [8] 美国环保局(EPA).守法援助、守法激励、守法监督、民事刑事执法以及环境正义[EB/OL].www.epa.gov/compliance,2004-08-15/2004-09-10.USEPA. Compliance assistance, compliance incentive, compliance monitor,civil and criminal enforcemet, and environmental justice[EB/OL].www. epa. gov/compliance,2004-08-15/2004-09-10.
    [9] 芬德利 R W,法贝尔 D A.美国环境法简论[M].程正康译.北京:中国环境科学出版社,1986.Findley R W, Farber D A. Environmental law in Nutshell[M]. Translated by Cheng Z K. Beijing: China Environmental Science Publishing House,1986.
    [10] General Accounting Office( GAO). Environmental enforcement: penalties may not recover economic benefits gained by violators,report to congressional requesters(GAO/RCED-91-166) [R]. Washington D C: GAO,1991.3,27.
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2004-09-25
  • 刊出日期:  2005-02-25

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