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日本琵琶湖的治理历程、效果与经验

余 辉

余 辉. 日本琵琶湖的治理历程、效果与经验[J]. 环境科学研究, 2013, 26(9): 956-965.
引用本文: 余 辉. 日本琵琶湖的治理历程、效果与经验[J]. 环境科学研究, 2013, 26(9): 956-965.
YU Hui. Experience and Inspiration of Eutrophication Control for the Lake Biwa, Japan[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2013, 26(9): 956-965.
Citation: YU Hui. Experience and Inspiration of Eutrophication Control for the Lake Biwa, Japan[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2013, 26(9): 956-965.

日本琵琶湖的治理历程、效果与经验

基金项目: 国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2012ZX07101-001)

Experience and Inspiration of Eutrophication Control for the Lake Biwa, Japan

  • 摘要: 以琵琶湖富营养化综合治理历程为主线,对琵琶湖30余年的治理过程、资金投入、治理措施、成功经验与成果进行了梳理. 截至2006年,琵琶湖综合整治历时35a,总投资约2.86×1012日元(约相当于1800×108元人民币),参照我国GB 3838—2002《地表水环境质量标准》,目前琵琶湖北湖水质维持在Ⅰ类水平,南湖由Ⅲ~Ⅳ类水恢复到I~Ⅱ类水质. 琵琶湖的治理分为2个阶段:第一阶段为1972—1997年,历时25a,这一阶段在琵琶湖水资源有效利用及防洪防灾上取得很大成就,但水质与环境仍在恶化; 1999年至今为第二阶段,主要目标是水质保护、水源涵养及自然环境与景观保护,目前琵琶湖富营养化已得到有效控制. 琵琶湖采取的综合治理措施主要包括依法治湖、中长期综合治理规划、流域污染源系统控制、自动监测系统及专门研究机构建立以及公众参与等5个方面. 主要治理经验包括:①严格控制氮、磷污染源,管网及大型污水处理设施建设着眼于未来长远规划,污水处理深度除磷脱氮技术的普及是污染源系统控制的关键;②大力提高森林覆盖率以减少面源污染的产生,改善水源涵养及流域生境;③切实做到有法必依、执法必严,实现依法治湖;④高度重视环境教育及公众参与;⑤积极推动各科研机构对环境问题的研究.

     

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2013-01-21
  • 修回日期:  2013-06-28
  • 刊出日期:  2013-09-25

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