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我国环境空气颗粒物质量基准研究框架及研究体系的构建

白志鹏 张文杰 韩 斌 杨 文 王歆华 赵雪艳 王宗爽

白志鹏, 张文杰, 韩 斌, 杨 文, 王歆华, 赵雪艳, 王宗爽. 我国环境空气颗粒物质量基准研究框架及研究体系的构建[J]. 环境科学研究, 2015, 28(5): 667-675.
引用本文: 白志鹏, 张文杰, 韩 斌, 杨 文, 王歆华, 赵雪艳, 王宗爽. 我国环境空气颗粒物质量基准研究框架及研究体系的构建[J]. 环境科学研究, 2015, 28(5): 667-675.
BAI Zhipeng, ZHANG Wenjie, HAN Bin, YANG Wen, WANG Xinhua, ZHAO Xueyan, WANG Zongshuang. Framework and Research System for Determining Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter in China[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2015, 28(5): 667-675.
Citation: BAI Zhipeng, ZHANG Wenjie, HAN Bin, YANG Wen, WANG Xinhua, ZHAO Xueyan, WANG Zongshuang. Framework and Research System for Determining Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter in China[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2015, 28(5): 667-675.

我国环境空气颗粒物质量基准研究框架及研究体系的构建

基金项目: 国家重点基础研究发展计划(973)项目(2011CB503801);中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务专项重点项目(2011YSKY03);国家环境保护公益性行业科研专项(200709048)

Framework and Research System for Determining Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter in China

  • 摘要: 空气颗粒物来源广泛、组成复杂,我国目前尚未有一套基于完整科学理论和足量实测数据支持的颗粒物基准体系,导致其来源、暴露水平、健康和环境风险信息量不足,相关标准制、修订的依据不足. 解析了美国环境空气质量管理的模式,并追踪了美国基准文件的发布历程和世界卫生组织导则值的发布和修订历程. 辨析了环境空气颗粒物质量基准与标准的内涵,分析了空气颗粒物质量基准研究对环境空气质量标准制/修订的支撑作用. 综合国外环境基准体系框架构成和已有研究成果,结合国内空气颗粒物质量基准研究现状和存在的问题,基于“污染源—环境空气浓度—暴露水平与剂量—健康/环境效应与风险”的各环节研究方法与目标,提出了“2-4-4”基准研究框架体系,即颗粒物质量基准研究包括空气颗粒物人体健康基准和空气颗粒物环境效应基准两部分,其中人体健康基准包括颗粒物污染特征与来源解析、个体暴露、剂量-效应关系及人体健康效应四部分,空气颗粒物环境效应基准包括颗粒物对生态系统、能见度、建筑物和材料、气候的影响四部分. 建议我国应开展大气污染健康影响前瞻性队列研究和对生态环境影响研究,采用多种方法,包括近期发展的暴露组学方法,系统研究空气颗粒物特别是PM2.5载带的有毒有害组分对公众健康的危害和风险;基于我国人群或区域调查结果,建立我国空气颗粒物特别是PM2.5环境质量基准体系,定期发布质量基准文件.

     

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