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被动采样法表征降水离子浓度和通量的局限性

张国忠 潘月鹏 田世丽 程萌田 谢雨竹 王 辉 王跃思

张国忠, 潘月鹏, 田世丽, 程萌田, 谢雨竹, 王 辉, 王跃思. 被动采样法表征降水离子浓度和通量的局限性[J]. 环境科学研究, 2015, 28(5): 684-690.
引用本文: 张国忠, 潘月鹏, 田世丽, 程萌田, 谢雨竹, 王 辉, 王跃思. 被动采样法表征降水离子浓度和通量的局限性[J]. 环境科学研究, 2015, 28(5): 684-690.
ZHANG Guozhong, PAN Yuepeng, TIAN Shili, CHENG Mengtian, XIE Yuzhu, WANG Hui, WANG Yuesi. Limitations of Passive Sampling Technique of Rainfall Chemistry and Wet Deposition Flux Characterization[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2015, 28(5): 684-690.
Citation: ZHANG Guozhong, PAN Yuepeng, TIAN Shili, CHENG Mengtian, XIE Yuzhu, WANG Hui, WANG Yuesi. Limitations of Passive Sampling Technique of Rainfall Chemistry and Wet Deposition Flux Characterization[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2015, 28(5): 684-690.

被动采样法表征降水离子浓度和通量的局限性

基金项目: 国家重点基础研究发展计划(973)项目(2012CB417106);国家自然科学基金项目(41405144,41321064)

Limitations of Passive Sampling Technique of Rainfall Chemistry and Wet Deposition Flux Characterization

  • 摘要: 降水(湿沉降)是大气污染物进入地表环境的主要途径,由于传统的被动采样法易受到颗粒物和气体干沉降的干扰,而采集到的混合沉降样品不能科学表征降水化学组成,也不能准确量化湿沉降通量,因此目前正逐步被主动采样法所取代. 采用主动和被动2种采样法同步采集了降水样品,以考察被动采样法表征降水离子浓度和通量的适用性. 结果表明:被动采样法采集的降水样品中离子浓度明显偏高,其中ρ(NO3-)、ρ(Mg2+)、ρ(Ca2+)、ρ(K+)、ρ(Cl-)、ρ(SO42-)、ρ(Na+)和ρ(NH4+)分别比主动采样法高65%、58%、43%、41%、35%、26%、10%和9%. 受大气污染物干沉降影响,被动采样法获得的NO3-、NH4+和SO42-混合沉降通量分别比主动采样法获得的湿沉降通量高79%、18%和35%,差异最显著的是NO3-. 被动采样法可以收集氮和硫的湿沉降,但不能有效捕获二者以颗粒物和气体形式发生的干沉降,对二者沉降总通量(干沉降通量+湿沉降通量)低估达39%〔23 kg/(hm2·a)〕和40%〔20 kg/(hm2·a)〕. 因此,鉴于大气污染形势日趋严重,污染物的干沉降作用凸显,被动采样法已难以准确测算污染物从大气向地表的沉降总通量,需要全面考虑细颗粒物(粒径≤2.5 μm)和气态物种(如HNO3)的贡献.

     

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  • 刊出日期:  2015-05-25

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