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太湖流域农田生产-畜禽养殖系统氮素流动特征

王丹 王延华 杨浩 蔡祖聪 颜晓元

王丹, 王延华, 杨浩, 蔡祖聪, 颜晓元. 太湖流域农田生产-畜禽养殖系统氮素流动特征[J]. 环境科学研究, 2016, 29(3): 457-464.
引用本文: 王丹, 王延华, 杨浩, 蔡祖聪, 颜晓元. 太湖流域农田生产-畜禽养殖系统氮素流动特征[J]. 环境科学研究, 2016, 29(3): 457-464.
WANG Dan, WANG Yanhua, YANG Hao, CAI Zucong, YAN Xiaoyuan. Nitrogen Flow Features of Crop-Livestock Breeding System in Taihu Lake Basin[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2016, 29(3): 457-464.
Citation: WANG Dan, WANG Yanhua, YANG Hao, CAI Zucong, YAN Xiaoyuan. Nitrogen Flow Features of Crop-Livestock Breeding System in Taihu Lake Basin[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2016, 29(3): 457-464.

太湖流域农田生产-畜禽养殖系统氮素流动特征

基金项目: 国家重大科学研究计划项目(2014CB953801);国家自然科学基金项目(41273102);南京师范大学“百人计划”项目(184080H20181)

Nitrogen Flow Features of Crop-Livestock Breeding System in Taihu Lake Basin

  • 摘要: 为应对太湖严峻的水体富营养化现状,从源头上降低面源污染负荷,基于物质流分析法与质量守恒原理,研究了常熟市辛庄镇农田生产-畜禽养殖系统的氮素流动通量、流动效率及环境负荷,并用实测值进行了参数校正. 结果表明:2000—2012年,辛庄镇农田生产子系统的单位面积氮素流动通量呈下降趋势,而畜禽养殖子系统的单位面积氮素流动通量则在42.5~50.9 kg/hm2范围内持续波动. 氮素利用率与氮素循环利用率均较低,氮素环境损失率较高,系统损失的氮素中有54.5%进入周围水体. 2000年以来,作物种植与畜禽养殖对辛庄镇环境氮负荷的贡献率分别在38.8%~50.2%与25.4%~35.8%之间波动. 辛庄镇农田施氮量为310.8 kg/hm2,人畜排泄氮量为61.1 kg/hm2,分别远高于全国平均值(197.2和18.6 kg/hm2). 过量施用化学氮肥与畜禽粪便的大量排放是辛庄镇环境氮负荷加重的主要原因. 辛庄镇高投入高产出的农业生产方式加大了太湖水环境修复的难度. 建议调整作物种植与畜禽养殖结构,推广科学施肥与生态养殖,将农田生产与畜禽养殖结合形成产业链,以此减轻氮素环境负荷.

     

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  • 收稿日期:  2015-09-30
  • 修回日期:  2015-12-01
  • 刊出日期:  2016-03-25

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