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乘用车内空气质量健康风险评估

刘琳琳 葛蕴珊 李兰 张传桢

刘琳琳, 葛蕴珊, 李兰, 张传桢. 乘用车内空气质量健康风险评估[J]. 环境科学研究, 2016, 29(4): 553-557.
引用本文: 刘琳琳, 葛蕴珊, 李兰, 张传桢. 乘用车内空气质量健康风险评估[J]. 环境科学研究, 2016, 29(4): 553-557.
LIU Linlin, GE Yunshan, LI Lan, ZHANG Chuanzhen. Health Risk Assessment of Indoor Air Quality in Passenger Cars[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2016, 29(4): 553-557.
Citation: LIU Linlin, GE Yunshan, LI Lan, ZHANG Chuanzhen. Health Risk Assessment of Indoor Air Quality in Passenger Cars[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2016, 29(4): 553-557.

乘用车内空气质量健康风险评估

基金项目: 国家环境保护标准制修订项目(2014-4)

Health Risk Assessment of Indoor Air Quality in Passenger Cars

  • 摘要: 为研究我国乘用车内空气的污染现状,采用二次热解析-毛细管气相色谱/质谱联用及高效液相色谱法,测定了16个品牌的市售新车车内空气中BTEX(苯、甲苯、乙苯和二甲苯)、苯乙烯、甲醛、乙醛和丙烯醛等8种污染物质量浓度,并对其健康风险进行了评估. 结果表明:8种污染物的质量浓度除乙醛外均低于GB/T 27630—2011《乘用车内空气质量评价指南》中的标准限值,ρ(苯)、ρ(甲苯)、ρ(乙苯)、ρ(二甲苯)、ρ(苯乙烯)、ρ(甲醛)、ρ(乙醛)和ρ(丙烯醛)范围分别为3.00~73.00、69.00~798.00、18.00~469.75、46.00~1 296.42、12.00~46.00、19.00~72.00、43.29~323.00和5.20~7.60 μg/m3. 致癌物质苯、甲醛和甲苯的质量浓度最高值分别为GB/T 27630—2011各自标准限值的66.36%、72.00%和72.55%;二甲苯质量浓度点离散程度较小,分布集中,其平均值为GB/T 27630—2011标准限值(1 500 μg/m3)的11.86%;ρ(乙苯)最大值为其标准限值的1/3左右;而ρ(苯乙烯)和ρ(丙烯醛)远低于各自标准限值. ρ(苯)和ρ(甲醛)对驾乘人员的健康均可能造成致癌风险. 对于男性职业司机,苯和甲醛平均浓度的致癌风险分别为US EPA(美国国家环境保护局)规定的致癌风险基准值(1×10-6)的18.86和60.67倍,而二者对女性职业司机的致癌风险仅比男性降低了12.53%;对于男性普通驾乘人员,苯和甲醛平均浓度的致癌风险分别为基准值的2.83和9.10倍,女性略低于男性. 二甲苯平均浓度的非致癌风险是US EPA规定的基准HI(非致癌风险指数,取1)的1.78倍. 研究表明,为降低车内空气中有害物质对车内乘员的健康危害,需要采用环保的内饰材料,改善车内空气质量.

     

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2015-09-10
  • 修回日期:  2016-01-03
  • 刊出日期:  2016-04-25

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