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溪流生态系统次生盐化的生态学研究进展

丁森 赵茜 张远

丁森, 赵茜, 张远. 溪流生态系统次生盐化的生态学研究进展[J]. 环境科学研究, 2016, 29(6): 837-844.
引用本文: 丁森, 赵茜, 张远. 溪流生态系统次生盐化的生态学研究进展[J]. 环境科学研究, 2016, 29(6): 837-844.
DING Sen, ZHAO Qian, ZHANG Yuan. A Brief Review of Ecological Studies on Secondary Salinization in Stream Ecosystems[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2016, 29(6): 837-844.
Citation: DING Sen, ZHAO Qian, ZHANG Yuan. A Brief Review of Ecological Studies on Secondary Salinization in Stream Ecosystems[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2016, 29(6): 837-844.

溪流生态系统次生盐化的生态学研究进展

基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(41401066);中央高校基本科研业务费专项(2662015QD004)

A Brief Review of Ecological Studies on Secondary Salinization in Stream Ecosystems

  • 摘要: 溪流次生盐化是人类活动干扰导致可溶性盐向水体迁移从而造成盐浓度异常增高的现象,由于干扰类型(如农业生产、河岸带植被破坏、采矿废水与污水排放等)的不同,溪流次生盐化呈现出溶解性无机离子组成复杂、盐浓度间歇性波动等特点. 已有研究发现:①溪流次生盐化会造成藻类、底栖动物和鱼类的群落结构产生变化,主要包括物种丰度、生物量、生物多样性、功能摄食类群等方面;②高盐环境对非耐盐物种产生胁迫从而降低其出现频率,敏感底栖动物会增加漂移行为以选择低盐环境,而敏感鱼类则消失;③耐盐物种应对高盐胁迫有不同策略,如卵胎生的产卵方式以减少在高盐环境中的时间,或拥有较强的渗透调节能力维持体内渗透平衡. 主要问题:①影响水生生物的可能是单一离子又或是离子组合,不同盐化水体所增加的离子类型及浓度都有很大差别,而要逐一探明单一离子及离子组合的影响需要巨大的工作量;②野外研究常以电导率或ρ(TDS)(TDS为总溶解性固体)表征盐化程度,而电导率或ρ(TDS)会改变有机污染物、重金属的生物毒性,也会与营养盐、悬浮物等因子产生交互作用,难以确定盐化对水生生物的独立影响. 因此,今后需关注全球变暖背景下次生盐化与营养盐、重金属的耦合作用,注重我国本土水生生物的耐受性及其适应调节机制,并重视基于野外调查与室内试验两类不同数据所获得水生生物适盐范围的对比验证;同时为满足水生生物健康保护,应加强对溪流次生盐化有指示作用的水质监测指标的开发及阈值的制订.

     

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  • 收稿日期:  2015-08-18
  • 修回日期:  2016-03-15
  • 刊出日期:  2016-06-25

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