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海岛近岸海域资源环境承载能力评价及其应用

张晓霞 陶平 程嘉熠 邵秘华 朱京海

张晓霞, 陶平, 程嘉熠, 邵秘华, 朱京海. 海岛近岸海域资源环境承载能力评价及其应用[J]. 环境科学研究, 2016, 29(11): 1725-1734.
引用本文: 张晓霞, 陶平, 程嘉熠, 邵秘华, 朱京海. 海岛近岸海域资源环境承载能力评价及其应用[J]. 环境科学研究, 2016, 29(11): 1725-1734.
ZHANG Xiaoxia, TAO Ping, CHENG Jiayi, SHAO Mihua, ZHU Jinghai. Method and Application of Resource and Environment Carrying Capacity Assessment for Island Offshore Sea Areas[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2016, 29(11): 1725-1734.
Citation: ZHANG Xiaoxia, TAO Ping, CHENG Jiayi, SHAO Mihua, ZHU Jinghai. Method and Application of Resource and Environment Carrying Capacity Assessment for Island Offshore Sea Areas[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2016, 29(11): 1725-1734.

海岛近岸海域资源环境承载能力评价及其应用

基金项目: 中华环保基金会“123工程”基金项目(CEPF2013-123-1-9);辽宁省海洋与渔业厅科研计划项目(2014-lnhyhbc-0003)

Method and Application of Resource and Environment Carrying Capacity Assessment for Island Offshore Sea Areas

  • 摘要: 为定量研究海岛近岸海域资源环境承载状态,满足开发进程中可持续发展的需求,构建了海岛近岸海域资源环境承载能力三级评价指标体系,以空间资源承载能力、生态环境承载能力和生态系统承灾能力作为基础指标,对海岛近岸海域进行全面评价,依据其生态系统特征与人类活动特征,分别选择人工岸线开发类型、海域使用类型、水质状况、生物群落健康状况、灾害风险状况等指标开展分类评价,最后利用“短板效应”方法进行复合评价,将评价结果划分为可载、超载与临界超载3个级别,并以辽宁长兴岛为例开展实证研究.结果表明,长兴岛近岸海域 岸线开发强度为0.87,海域水质达标面积比率为0.75,鱼卵仔鱼平均密度为4.45 ind/m3,这3个单项指标的计算结果 均超过相应超载分级标准,受空间资源承载力和生态环境承载力短板要素的影响,该海域资源环境承载力状况为“超载”.表明以资源、生态环境和灾害等要素构建评价指标体系可客观全面地评价海岛近岸海域资源环境承载力状况,并能够科学地遴选出主导其承载力强弱的短板要素.长兴岛近岸海域可通过填海施工中预留过水通道、人工放流增补渔业资源、调整陆源排污口位置、实行岸段生态修复等措施优化开发利用方式,提升空间资源承载能力与生态环境承载力,逐步减弱短板效应.长兴岛近岸海域承灾能力属“可载”级别,为满足该区域未来发展过程中防灾减灾的需要,仍需通过编制突发事故应急预案,建立完善的事故应急措施来应对突发灾害事件.

     

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  • 收稿日期:  2016-04-01
  • 修回日期:  2016-08-03
  • 刊出日期:  2016-11-25

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