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高原深水湖泊沉积物重金属背景值研究及潜在生态风险评估

王坤 张岚 姜霞 赵丽 王书航

王坤, 张岚, 姜霞, 赵丽, 王书航. 高原深水湖泊沉积物重金属背景值研究及潜在生态风险评估[J]. 环境科学研究, 2018, 31(12): 2124-2132. doi: 10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2018.07.28
引用本文: 王坤, 张岚, 姜霞, 赵丽, 王书航. 高原深水湖泊沉积物重金属背景值研究及潜在生态风险评估[J]. 环境科学研究, 2018, 31(12): 2124-2132. doi: 10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2018.07.28
WANG Kun, ZHANG Lan, JIANG Xia, ZHAO Li, WANG Shuhang. Determination of Background Value and Potential Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in Sediments of a Deep Plateau Lake[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2018, 31(12): 2124-2132. doi: 10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2018.07.28
Citation: WANG Kun, ZHANG Lan, JIANG Xia, ZHAO Li, WANG Shuhang. Determination of Background Value and Potential Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in Sediments of a Deep Plateau Lake[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2018, 31(12): 2124-2132. doi: 10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2018.07.28

高原深水湖泊沉积物重金属背景值研究及潜在生态风险评估

doi: 10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2018.07.28
基金项目: 

科技部科技基础性工作专项 2014FY110400-01

详细信息
    作者简介:

    王坤(1985-), 女, 山东寿光人, 助理研究员, 硕士, 主要从事湖泊生态环境保护规划与管理研究, wangkun@craes.org.cn

    通讯作者:

    姜霞(1974-), 女, 山东蓬莱人, 研究员, 博士, 博导, 主要从事湖泊水环境研究, jiangxia@craes.org.cn

  • 中图分类号: X524

Determination of Background Value and Potential Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in Sediments of a Deep Plateau Lake

Funds: 

National Fundamental Research Project for Science and Technology of China 2014FY110400-01

  • 摘要: 为了解青藏高原湖区典型深水湖泊——羊卓雍错沉积物重金属污染水平及当前生态风险,以表层沉积物为基础,采用参考元素法计算研究区的重金属背景值,并对重金属生态风险状况进行了初步评估.结果表明:①羊卓雍错沉积物中重金属Cr、Ni、Cu、Zn、As、Cd、Hg和Pb的背景值分别为(27.49±11.39)(22.53±4.74)(15.93±6.44)(28.22±9.68)(11.96±2.34)(0.22±0.11)(0.04±0.03)(11.59±5.29)mg/kg.②羊卓雍错表层沉积物重金属生态风险指数为66.96~227.79,平均值为119.45,各采样点重金属潜在生态风险均处于低风险或中等风险,流域整体处于低风险.③羊卓雍错表层沉积物中8种重金属的潜在生态风险顺序为Hg > Cd > As > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cr > Zn,各重金属生态风险指数范围为0.97~123.25,平均值在1.01~56.67之间,除Hg处于中等风险外,其余7种重金属均处于低风险状态.研究显示,参考元素法可便捷、准确地计算受人类活动影响较小湖泊的沉积物重金属背景值,当前羊卓雍错沉积物中重金属质量分数主要受背景值影响,而人类活动对重金属污染亦有贡献,需适当加强关注.

     

  • 图  1  羊卓雍错采样点分布

    Figure  1.  Sampling points and location of Yamdrok Lake

    图  2  羊卓雍错表层沉积物重金属分布特征

    Figure  2.  Heavy metals distribution characteristics in surface sediment of Yamdrok Lake

    图  3  羊卓雍错表层沉积物中w(Fe)和w(Al)的回归分析

    Figure  3.  Relationship between iron and aluminum in surface sediment of Yamdrok Lake

    图  4  羊卓雍错表层沉积物中8种重金属质量分数与w(Al)的回归结果

    Figure  4.  Relationship between the mass fraction of eight heavy metals and iron in surface sediment from Yamdrok Lake

    图  5  羊卓雍错表层沉积物重金属质量分数及其频数分布

    Figure  5.  Histogram of original and concentrations of eight heavy metals in surface sediment of Yamdrok Lake

    图  6  羊卓雍错表层沉积物重金属潜在生态风险指数空间分布

    Figure  6.  Spatial distribution about potential ecological risk indexes of heavy metal in surface sediment of Yamdrok Lake

    表  1  羊卓雍错表层沉积物背景值参数统计

    Table  1.   Background values of heavy metals in surface sediments of the Yamdrok Lake

    mg/kg
    项目 样本个数 算术平均值 算术平均值的95%置信区间 中位数 标准差 几何平均值
    下限 上限
    w(Cr) 68 27.49 24.73 30.24 28.34 11.39 25.13
    w(Ni) 61 22.53 21.32 23.75 23.26 4.74 22.05
    w(Cu) 68 15.93 14.37 17.49 14.57 6.44 14.69
    w(Zn) 69 28.22 25.90 30.55 28.48 9.68 26.48
    w(As) 56 11.96 11.33 12.58 12.14 2.34 11.73
    w(Cd) 61 0.22 0.20 0.25 0.21 0.11 0.19
    w(Hg) 60 0.04 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.04
    w(Pb) 56 11.59 10.18 13.01 10.62 5.29 10.29
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  沉积物重金属背景值及毒性响应系数

    Table  2.   Background value and toxic response coefficient of heavy metals in sediment

    项目 Cr Ni Cu Zn As Cd Hg Pb
    背景值/(mg/kg) 27.49 22.53 15.93 28.22 11.96 0.22 0.04 11.59
    毒性响应系数 2 5 5 1 10 30 40 5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  重金属污染程度及潜在生态危害等级划分标准

    Table  3.   Dividing standards of heavy metals pollution and ecological risk levels

    单个重金属污染系数 单个重金属潜在生态风险系数 多种重金属潜在生态风险指数
    阈值区间 程度分级 阈值区间 程度分级 阈值区间 程度分级
    Cfi<1 低污染 Eri<40 低风险 RI<150 低风险
    1≤Cfi<3 中等污染 40≤Eri<80 中等风险 150≤RI<300 中等风险
    3≤Cfi<6 较高污染 80≤Eri<160 较高风险 300≤RI<600 高风险
    Cfi≥6 很高污染 160≤Eri<320 高风险 RI≥600 极高风险
    Eri≥320 很高风险
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  羊卓雍错表层沉积物中各重金属潜在生态风险指数

    Table  4.   Potential ecological risk indexes of heavy metals in surface sediment of Yamdrok Lake

    项目 最小值 最大值 平均值 低风险比例/% 中等风险及较高风险比例/%
    Cr 0.97 3.15 2.05 100 0
    Ni 3.93 6.79 5.22 100 0
    Cu 2.82 8.68 5.08 100 0
    Zn 0.57 1.48 1.01 100 0
    As 7.44 25.91 12.05 100 0
    Cd 14.66 55.79 31.79 87.50 12.50
    Hg 26.50 123.25 56.67 41.67 58.33
    Pb 2.98 8.02 5.58 0 0
    RI 66.96 227.79 119.45 79.17 20.83
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2018-04-02
  • 修回日期:  2018-07-25
  • 刊出日期:  2018-12-25

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