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近40年来长江干流水质变化研究

陈善荣 何立环 林兰钰 方德昆 张凤英

陈善荣, 何立环, 林兰钰, 方德昆, 张凤英. 近40年来长江干流水质变化研究[J]. 环境科学研究, 2020, 33(5): 1119-1128. doi: 10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.03.07
引用本文: 陈善荣, 何立环, 林兰钰, 方德昆, 张凤英. 近40年来长江干流水质变化研究[J]. 环境科学研究, 2020, 33(5): 1119-1128. doi: 10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.03.07
CHEN Shanrong, HE Lihuan, LIN Lanyu, FANG Dekun, ZHANG Fengying. Change Trends of Surface Water Quality in the Mainstream of the Yangtze River during the Past Four Decades[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2020, 33(5): 1119-1128. doi: 10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.03.07
Citation: CHEN Shanrong, HE Lihuan, LIN Lanyu, FANG Dekun, ZHANG Fengying. Change Trends of Surface Water Quality in the Mainstream of the Yangtze River during the Past Four Decades[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2020, 33(5): 1119-1128. doi: 10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.03.07

近40年来长江干流水质变化研究

doi: 10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.03.07
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 41601608

国家重点研发计划项目 2016YFD0800904-3

详细信息
    作者简介:

    陈善荣(1963-), 男, 江苏海门人, 高级工程师, 主要从事环境质量监测研究, chensr@cnemc.cn

    通讯作者:

    张凤英(1982-), 女, 安徽庐江人, 正高级工程师, 博士, 主要从事环境质量监测与综合分析研究, zhangfy@cnemc.cn

  • 中图分类号: X82;X196

Change Trends of Surface Water Quality in the Mainstream of the Yangtze River during the Past Four Decades

Funds: 

National Natural Science Foundation of China 41601608

National Key Research and Development Program of China 2016YFD0800904-3

  • 摘要: 为掌握长江水质状况及其变化趋势,开展1981—2019年长江干流水质变化特征研究.系统总结了39年间长江干流地表水环境监测情况,以CODMn、NH3-N和TP为研究因子,探讨了长江干流水环境质量变化规律;同时,选取有连续监测结果的断面,分析了长江上游、中游和下游不同断面近40年来的水质变化特征.结果表明:①1981—2019年,我国水环境监测迅速发展,长江干流水环境质量监测在监测点位、监测频次、监测项目和水环境质量等方面都发生了较大变化.②长江干流地表水水质总体相对较好,上游水质好于中下游,上游水体中ρ(CODMn)、ρ(NH3-N)和ρ(TP)均低于中下游.③1981—2005年各江段ρ(CODMn)和ρ(NH3-N)年均值变化特征不同,在2006年之后大体呈逐渐降低的变化趋势.④2006年以来,长江干流水质呈好转态势,水体中ρ(CODMn)、ρ(NH3-N)和ρ(TP)均呈逐年下降趋势.⑤近年来,长江干流断面中TP的污染程度高于CODMn和NH3-N,应引起重视.研究显示,政府的相关管理措施对长江干流水质改善具有正面推动作用,极大改善了长江流域总体水质,也促进了长江干流水质的进一步好转.

     

  • 图  1  长江干流监测断面示意

    注:1—直门达;2—金沙江岗托桥;3—贺龙桥;4—新华;5—金江桥;6—龙洞;7—倮果;8—大湾子;9—蒙姑;10—三块石;11—石门子;12—挂弓山;13—纳溪大渡口;14—手爬岩;15—朱沱;16—江津大桥;17—丰收坝;18—和尚山;19—寸滩;20—清溪场;21—苏家;22—晒网坝;23—白帝城;24—巫峡口;25—黄腊石;26—南津关;27—云池(白洋);28—砖瓦厂;29—观音寺;30—柳口;31—调关;32—荆江口;33—城陵矶;34—杨泗港;35—白浒山;36—燕矶;37—风波港;38—中官铺;39—姚港;40—湖口;41—鄱阳湖出口;42—香口;43—皖河口;44—前江口;45—五步沟;46—陈家墩;47—东西梁山;48—三兴村;49—九乡河口;50—小河口上游;51—焦山尾;52—高港码头;53—魏村;54—小湾;55—姚港;56—浏河;57—青草沙进水口;58—白龙港;59—朝阳农场.下同.

    Figure  1.  Monitoring sites in the mainstream of Yangtze River

    图  2  1981—2019年长江干流监测断面个数变化

    Figure  2.  Numbers of monitoring sites in the mainstream of Yangtze River from 1981 to 2019

    图  3  2019年长江干流ρ(TP)、ρ(CODMn)和ρ(NH3-N)沿程变化

    Figure  3.  ρ(TP), ρ(NH3-N) and ρ(CODMn) in the mainstream of Yangtze River in 2019

    图  4  1981—2019年长江干流ρ(CODMn)年际变化

    Figure  4.  Annual ρ(CODMn) in the mainstream of Yangtze River from 1981 to 2019

    图  5  1981—2019年长江干流ρ(NH3-N)年际变化

    Figure  5.  Annual ρ(NH3-N) in the mainstream of Yangtze River from 1981 to 2019

    图  6  2010—2019年长江干流ρ(TP)年际变化

    Figure  6.  Annual ρ(TP) in the mainstream of Yangtze River from 2010 to 2019

    图  7  1981—2019年长江干流连续监测断面ρ(CODMn)、ρ(NH3-N)和ρ(TP)统计结果

    Figure  7.  Statistics on ρ(CODMn), ρ(NH3-N) and ρ(TP) for continuous monitoring sites in the mainstream of Yangtze River from 1981 to 2019

    图  8  1981—2019年长江干流部分连续监测断面ρ(CODMn)变化趋势

    Figure  8.  Change trends of ρ(CODMn) for continuous monitoring sites in the mainstream of Yangtze River from 1981 to 2019

    图  9  1981—2019年长江干流部分连续监测断面ρ(NH3-N)变化趋势

    Figure  9.  Change trends of ρ(NH3-N) for continuous monitoring sites in the mainstream sites of Yangtze River from 1981 to 2019

    图  10  2011—2019年长江干流部分断面ρ(TP)变化趋势

    Figure  10.  Change trends of ρ(TP) for continuous monitoring sites in the mainstream of Yangtze River from 2011 to 2019

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