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我国中东部地区2015—2020年夏半年PM2.5和臭氧复合污染气象特征分析

花丛 江琪 迟茜元 刘超

花丛, 江琪, 迟茜元, 刘超. 我国中东部地区2015—2020年夏半年PM2.5和臭氧复合污染气象特征分析[J]. 环境科学研究, 2022, 35(3): 650-658. doi: 10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2021.10.17
引用本文: 花丛, 江琪, 迟茜元, 刘超. 我国中东部地区2015—2020年夏半年PM2.5和臭氧复合污染气象特征分析[J]. 环境科学研究, 2022, 35(3): 650-658. doi: 10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2021.10.17
HUA Cong, JIANG Qi, CHI Xiyuan, LIU Chao. Meteorological Characteristics of PM2.5-O3 Air Combined Pollution in Central and Eastern China in the Summer Half Years of 2015-2020[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2022, 35(3): 650-658. doi: 10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2021.10.17
Citation: HUA Cong, JIANG Qi, CHI Xiyuan, LIU Chao. Meteorological Characteristics of PM2.5-O3 Air Combined Pollution in Central and Eastern China in the Summer Half Years of 2015-2020[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2022, 35(3): 650-658. doi: 10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2021.10.17

我国中东部地区2015—2020年夏半年PM2.5和臭氧复合污染气象特征分析

doi: 10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2021.10.17
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目(No.2019YFC0214602);国家气象中心预报员专项(No.Y202126)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    花丛(1984-),女,山东济南人,高级工程师,硕士,主要从事环境气象预报及大气边界层研究,floweronly@163.com

    通讯作者:

    江琪(1989-),女,内蒙古呼和浩特人,工程师,硕士,主要从事环境气象预报研究,Jiangqi89@163.com

  • 中图分类号: X51

Meteorological Characteristics of PM2.5-O3 Air Combined Pollution in Central and Eastern China in the Summer Half Years of 2015-2020

Funds: National Key Research and Development Program of China (No.2019YFC0214602);National Meteorological Center Forecaster Foundation of China (No.Y202126)
  • 摘要: 为了解我国夏半年大气复合污染特征及其与气象条件的关系,基于2015—2020年夏半年(4—10月)空气质量监测、常规气象观测等资料,结合统计学方法与主观经验开展对比分析. 结果表明:分析时段内我国大气污染呈单污染比例升高、臭氧(O3)与PM2.5污染“双高”污染事件减少的特征,中东部大部分地区O3超标日数增加、PM2.5超标日数减少的“跷跷板”效应十分明显. 通过对污染过程的分析发现,区域O3污染持续性特征明显,其中京津冀及周边地区持续时间超过10 d的O3污染过程共有6次,最长持续时间为15 d. 与之相比,复合污染过程表现出离散性(区域污染过程少)、间歇性(持续性过程少)的特征. 区域O3污染过程发生时的气象条件一般为最高温度较高、风速较小、混合层高度较低,但东北地区在大气扩散条件较好的情况下仍会出现区域O3污染. 通过对地面天气分型的分析发现,均压场型和低压控制型为O3污染出现时最主要的两种地面天气形势,高压控制型下出现O3污染的概率相对较低,京津冀及周边地区在倒槽控制下也有一定概率的O3污染出现. 研究显示,我国中东部地区夏半年O3污染影响显著,关注不同地区O3污染与气象条件之间的相关性对于大气复合污染防控有一定积极意义.

     

  • 图  1  空气质量监测国控站点位置

    注:底图为经自然资源部审核,批准中国气象局使用的《气象台风应用图》,审图号:GS(2019)3082. 下同.

    Figure  1.  Spatial distribution of national air quality monitoring sites

    图  2  我国2015—2020年夏半年大气复合污染特征的变化趋势

    Figure  2.  Annual variation of combined pollution characteristics in the summer half years of 2015-2020 in China

    图  3  2015—2019年夏半年我国O3超标日变化倾向率和污染超标日的变化情况

    Figure  3.  Variation tendency rate of ozone pollution days and variation of pollution days in the summer half years of 2015-2019 in China

    图  4  我国中东部地区六大区域2015—2020年夏半年O3污染与复合污染过程气象要素特征

    Figure  4.  Characteristics of meteorological elements in ozone pollution and combined pollution processes in 6 key areas in the summer half years of 2015-2020 in central and eastern China

    图  5  我国中东部地区六大区域2015—2020年夏半年在地面不同天气系统控制下不同等级O3污染发生的概率及该类型天气系统的出现次数

    Figure  5.  Probability of different ozone pollution levels in 6 key areas in the summer half years of 2015-2020 in central and eastern China under the control of different ground weather patterns and the numbers of ground weather patterns

    表  1  我国中东部地区六大区域划分

    Table  1.   Regional division of central and eastern China

    序号区域名称涵盖省份站点个数
    1 京津冀及周边地区 北京市、天津市、河北省、山西省、河南省、山东省 260
    2 长三角地区 上海市、江苏省、浙江省、安徽省 197
    3 华南地区 广西壮族自治区、广东省、福建省 182
    4 东北地区 黑龙江省、吉林省、辽宁省 159
    5 华中地区 湖北省、湖南省、江西省 175
    6 川渝地区 四川省、重庆市 93
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  我国中东部地区六大区域2015—2020年夏半年O3污染过程统计特征

    Table  2.   Statistics of ozone pollution processes in 6 key areas in the summer half years of 2015-2020 in central and eastern China

    区域区域污染
    日数/d
    持续性污
    染过程/次
    持续性污染日
    数占区域污染
    日数的比例/%
    污染最长
    持续时间/d
    京津冀及周边地区 392 51 72.45 15
    长三角地区 262 27 51.91 11
    华南地区 48 6 64.58 8
    东北地区 127 15 46.46 6
    华中地区 96 10 58.33 9
    川渝地区 125 19 56.00 9
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  我国中东部地区六大区域2015—2020年夏半年复合污染过程统计特征

    Table  3.   Statistics of combined pollution processes in 6 key areas in the summer half years of 2015-2020 in central and eastern China

    区域区域污
    染日数/d
    复合污染过程日数占O3
    污染过程日数的比例/%
    京津冀及周边地区 9 2.30
    长三角地区 7 2.67
    华南地区 0 0.00
    东北地区 1 0.79
    华中地区 3 3.13
    川渝地区 3 2.40
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  我国中东部地区六大区域典型城市

    Table  4.   Typical cities in key regions in 6 key areas in central and eastern China

    区域典型城市
    京津冀及周边地区 北京市、石家庄市、太原市、郑州市、济南市
    长三角地区 南京市、合肥市
    华南地区 广州市
    东北地区 哈尔滨市、长春市、沈阳市
    华中地区 武汉市、长沙市
    川渝地区 成都市、重庆市
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-07-28
  • 修回日期:  2021-10-25
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-03-22

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