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《火葬场大气污染物排放标准》实施对火化炉烟气二噁英减排的影响

尹文华 刘丽君 李旭东 谢丹平 杨艳艳 韩静磊 彭江波 何志远 冯桂贤 黄汉明

尹文华, 刘丽君, 李旭东, 谢丹平, 杨艳艳, 韩静磊, 彭江波, 何志远, 冯桂贤, 黄汉明. 《火葬场大气污染物排放标准》实施对火化炉烟气二噁英减排的影响[J]. 环境科学研究, 2022, 35(9): 2092-2099. doi: 10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2022.06.25
引用本文: 尹文华, 刘丽君, 李旭东, 谢丹平, 杨艳艳, 韩静磊, 彭江波, 何志远, 冯桂贤, 黄汉明. 《火葬场大气污染物排放标准》实施对火化炉烟气二噁英减排的影响[J]. 环境科学研究, 2022, 35(9): 2092-2099. doi: 10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2022.06.25
YIN Wenhua, LIU Lijun, LI Xudong, XIE Danping, YANG Yanyan, HAN Jinglei, PENG Jiangbo, HE Zhiyuan, FENG Guixian, HUANG Hanming. Impacts of Implementation of Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Crematory on Reduction of PCDD/Fs Emissions from Cremation Plants[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2022, 35(9): 2092-2099. doi: 10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2022.06.25
Citation: YIN Wenhua, LIU Lijun, LI Xudong, XIE Danping, YANG Yanyan, HAN Jinglei, PENG Jiangbo, HE Zhiyuan, FENG Guixian, HUANG Hanming. Impacts of Implementation of Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Crematory on Reduction of PCDD/Fs Emissions from Cremation Plants[J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2022, 35(9): 2092-2099. doi: 10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2022.06.25

《火葬场大气污染物排放标准》实施对火化炉烟气二噁英减排的影响

doi: 10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2022.06.25
基金项目: 广东省省级环保专项(No.PM-zx443-201703-132);深圳市可持续发展科技专项项目(No.KCXFZ20201221173402007);中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务专项资金自由探索项目(No.PM-zx703-202112-338)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    尹文华(1986-),男,江西吉安人,工程师,硕士,主要从事固废资源化和环境中持久性有机污染物监测研究,yinwenhua@scies.org

    通讯作者:

    ①刘丽君(1991-),女,贵州毕节人,工程师,硕士,主要从事固体废物无害化及资源化利用安全性、持久性有机污染物生成和控制等研究,liulijun@scies.org

    ②杨艳艳(1987-),女,河南周口人,助理研究员,硕士,主要从事环境中持久性有机污染物监测研究,yangyanyan@scies.org

  • 中图分类号: X51

Impacts of Implementation of Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Crematory on Reduction of PCDD/Fs Emissions from Cremation Plants

Funds: Special Project of Environmental Protection of the Guangdong Province (No.PM-zx443-201703-132);Shenzhen Special Sustainable Development Science and Technology Project, China (No.KCXFZ20201221173402007);Free Exploration Project of Special Research Funds for the Central Public-Interest Scientific Institution, China (No.PM-zx703-202112-338)
  • 摘要: 为调查殡葬行业大气污染物排放新标准《火葬场大气污染物排放标准》(GB 13801—2015)实施4年后火化烟气中二英(PCDD/Fs)的污染排放特征及其对行业的影响,在我国南方地区选取了32台火化炉,对其排放烟气中PCDD/Fs水平、影响因素、排放因子进行了研究,并评估标准实施4年后的效果. 结果表明:①火化烟气PCDD/Fs毒性当量浓度(以I-TEQ计,下同)为0.033~7.4 ng/m3,平均值为1.1 ng/m3,PCDD/Fs超标率为56.2%,其中拣灰炉和平板炉超标率分别为62.5%和50.0%. 与GB 13801—2015实施前相比,火化炉废气中PCDD/Fs排放浓度显著下降,说明PCDD/Fs污染减排成效明显,但排放水平和超标率仍较高. ②有无废气处理工艺、运行管理水平、随葬品数量与PCDD/Fs排放浓度密切相关. 废气处理设施缺失或无法正常运行时PCDD/Fs毒性当量浓度为0.32~7.4 ng/m3,平均值为2.5 ng/m3,超标率达75.0%;配备“活性炭吸附(ACI)+布袋除尘(BF)”工艺且运行正常时,PCDD/Fs毒性当量浓度范围为0.033~4.5 ng/m3,平均值为0.83 ng/m3,超标率为58.3%,可能与部分处理设施使用率低、运行不佳和维护不到位等原因有关. 指纹特征显示,无废气处理工艺时七氯代、八氯代同系物占比较高;配备“ACI+BF”处理设施时以四氯代、五氯代同系物为主,证实该工艺组合主要去除高氯代同系物. ③火化炉废气PCDD/Fs排放因子(以I-TEQ计,下同)为67.8~39 981 ng/具,平均值为4 217 ng/具,显著低于联合国环境规划署(UNEP)于2005年发布的第1和第2级排放因子(分别为90和10 μg/具),但高于其优化控制措施的排放因子(0.4 μg/具). 研究显示,未来需加强对我国遗体火化PCDD/Fs减排的技术帮扶及排放因子的更新.

     

  • 图  1  烟气中PCDD/Fs同类物占比

    Figure  1.  Content distribution of PCDD/Fs congeners in flue gas

    图  2  随葬品多寡对二英排放水平和超标率的影响

    Figure  2.  PCDD/Fs emission and the exceeding rates when there were more or less funerary objects

    表  1  殡仪馆现场调查情况

    Table  1.   On-site investigation of funeral parlor

    殡仪馆编号炉型1)随葬品情况烟气处理设施
    A拣灰炉、平板炉无随葬品旋风除尘+干法脱酸+ACI+BF
    B拣灰炉少量衣物旋风除尘+干法脱酸+ACI+BF
    平板炉无随葬品
    C拣灰炉、平板炉少量衣物旋风除尘+干法脱酸+ACI+BF
    D拣灰炉、平板炉衣服、被子、环保袋、纸钱旋风除尘+干法脱酸+ACI+BF
    E拣灰炉、平板炉木棺、衣服旋风除尘+湿法脱酸+ACI+BF
    F拣灰炉、平板炉木棺、衣服旋风除尘+ACI+BF
    G拣灰炉木棺、衣服旋风除尘+ACI+BF
    平板炉无随葬品
    H拣灰炉、平板炉环保棺、衣服旋风除尘+ACI+BF
    I拣灰炉纸棺、少量纸钱湿法脱酸+旋风除尘+ACI+BF
    平板炉木棺、纸钱
    J拣灰炉、平板炉少量衣物水幕除尘+旋风除尘+ACI+BF
    K拣灰炉、平板炉环保棺、衣服旋风除尘+布袋除尘+蜂窝活性炭吸附
    L拣灰炉、平板炉少量衣物布袋除尘+蜂窝活性炭吸附
    M平板炉无随葬品无法正常运行
    N拣灰炉棉木、纸钱、棉被、衣物、草席无法正常运行
    O拣灰炉、平板炉寿衣、裹尸胶纸、纸棺无法正常运行
    P拣灰炉、平板炉木棺、衣服、被、纸钱
    Q拣灰炉、平板炉无随葬品
    注:1)南方地区火化机有平板式、台车式两种,分别称为平板炉(普通炉)和拣灰炉(高档炉).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  近年来火化机烟气中PCDD/Fs排放情况

    Table  2.   PCDD/Fs emission from crematories in recent years

    年份毒性当量浓度/(ng/m3)超标率/%烟气含氧量数据来源
    最小值最大值平均值火化炉(含拣
    灰炉和平板炉)
    拣灰炉平板炉
    20150.027163.256.275.037.517.8%(范围为11.5%~20.7%)文献[28]
    20170.014242.761.1文献[29]
    20190.0337.41.156.262.550.018.2%(范围为11.1%~20.0%)该研究
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  有无烟气处理工艺时PCDD/Fs排放水平和超标率

    Table  3.   PCDD/Fs emission and the exceeding rates with or without flue gas treatment processes

    主要烟气处理工艺组合烟气含氧量毒性当量浓度/(ng/m3)超标率/%
    直排或处理设施无法正常运行19.1%(范围为14.1%~20.0%)2.5(范围为0.32~7.4)75.0
    含“ACI+BF”处理设施17.7%(范围为11.1%~17.8%)0.83(范围为0.033~4.5)58.3
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-02-07
  • 修回日期:  2022-05-27
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-09-13

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