The harmful effects of ambient ozone exposure on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality are increasing. To evaluate the effects of COPD mortality burden and the corresponding economic losses associated with ambient ozone exposure, the peak-season ambient ozone concentration data and mortality records of 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in mainland China in 2020 were collected. Based on the hazard ration between COPD deaths and ambient ozone exposure cited from a study of systematic review and meta-analysis, risk of COPD deaths attributed to ozone exposure was estimated with reference to the Air Quality Guidelines level of peak season (60 µg/m3
) proposed by the World Health Organization in 2021. Besides, socioeconomic, and demographic data were collected to quantify the attributable deaths and corresponding economic losses due to ambient ozone exposure in 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities of China. The results showed that the exposure-response hazard ratio between ambient ozone and COPD mortality is 1.12 (95%CI：1.00 — 1.21) per 10 μg/m3
, with increased COPD mortality risk for ambient ozone. As estimated, 101.15 (95%CI：0.00 — 174.89）thousands COPD deaths are attributable to ambient ozone in 2020 in China. The corresponding economic losses is 213.14 billion yuan. The proportion of the overall economic loss to the gross domestic product (GDP) is accounting for 0.21% of GDP. The study indicated that ambient ozone exposure has led to substantial COPD mortality and economic loss in China. It is necessary to formulate corresponding policies to reduce ozone concentration in accordance with local conditions to achieve the target of the peak season ozone environmental quality guideline limit of 60 µg/m3
proposed by the World Health Organization in 2021, and actively respond to the health threats of ambient ozone exposure to human.