[Objective]To investigate the utility of artificial wetlands in the management of surface source pollution in watersheds and water ecological environmental protection in plateau lakes and dry tributary watersheds, [Methods]This study took 11 levels of functional areas and 4 plant configurations of composite artificial wetlands in the Jianshan River watershed as the research objects, through measuring the pollutant load of each functional area after 6 typical rainfall events in the rainy season, the N and P contents of each organ of 4 plants in one growth cycle and their corresponding soil N and P contents of each organ of the four plants and their corresponding soil N and P contents in one growing cycle were measured, and the characteristics of their N and P accumulation, enrichment and migration coefficients were analyzed to explore the removal effects and pathways of ecological pond-submerged surface flow composite artificial wetland on different surface source pollutants. [results]The results show that: (1) the reduction rate of biological sedimentation ponds on suspended sediment decreases step by step and reaches 27.75%-55.00% overall, and the removal rate of system on each state of surface pollutants reaches 44.40%-78.87%, and the purification effect of system end zoning is more significant. (2) substrate/soil adsorption (contribution 59%-74%) is the main way of artificial wetland nitrogen removal, plant uptake and transformation (contribution 32%-42%) is the main way of phosphorus removal, in long calendar time or high rainfall intensity caused by high pollution load input conditions system suspension mass sedimentation rate and pollutant purification effect is more preferable. (3) The enrichment and intra-plant migration of nutrients in artificial wetland plants are stage-specific, with nitrogen and phosphorus enrichment coefficients (2.29-3.53, 1.07-2.92) all >1 and active upward migration of nutrients, which is conducive to remediation of environmental surface pollution and mowing to remove nutrients. (4) The removal rates of nitrogen and phosphorus were all surface flow wetlands > submerged strip wetlands, and the optimal plant configurations for nitrogen and phosphorus removal rates were Thalia dealbata
+ Cyperus alternifolius
and Typha orientalis
+ Cyperus alternifolius
, respectively. [Conclusion]When using artificial wetland system to control surface source pollution in watershed, reasonable deployment of substrate and plant ratio and combination, efficient use of artificial wetland plant sensitivity difference to surface source pollution and reasonable configuration of pretreatment of incoming water bodies and the use of multi-functional, multi-pond system combination of composite artificial wetland system design can play a stable water quality purification effect.