Carrying out scientific accounting of carbon emissions from land use change and future scenario simulation is a hot issue in the field of land cover change research, and it is also one of the core themes for implementing the decision-making and deployment of "carbon neutrality in peak carbon dioxide emissions". Based on the fusion of multi-source data such as statistical data and spatial data, this study constructed a bottom-up accounting system of carbon emissions and their changes of cultivated land, woodland, grassland and construction land in counties of Fujian Province, and calculated the carbon emissions of land use in counties of Fujian Province from 2005 to 2020. Combined with Moran index, LISA clustering, spatial Markov chain and geographic detector method, the time series characteristics, evolution pattern and influencing mechanism of carbon emissions from land use in Fujian Province from 2005 to 2020 were analyzed. The results are as follows: ① The carbon emissions from land use in Fujian Province generally show spatial heterogeneity and agglomeration effect, and the spatial evolution of carbon emissions has the characteristics of path dependence and spatial locking. ② There is a spatial spillover effect of carbon emissions from land use in Fujian Province, and the carbon emissions in low and low concentration areas are actively transferred across levels. ③ Population size is the primary factor to promote the growth of carbon emissions from land use in Fujian Province.