Located in the easternmost part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the upper reaches of the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, Sichuan Province is a global biodiversity hotspot and an important gene bank of species endemic to China. Because of this region’s environmental significance, it is important to identify patterns in the distribution of plant and animal species within the Sichuan Province. Such information can aid in the identification of fragile environmental zones, inform conservation strategies, and support the development of biodiversity remote sensing monitoring. To identify biodiversity patterns within this region, we compiled the distribution data of 13,845 species of vascular plants and vertebrates in 183 counties (districts) of Sichuan Province. In addition to individual species, we also analyzed the distribution of phylogenetic clades, including angiosperms, gymnosperms, pteridophytes, mammals, birds,bony fish, amphibians and reptiles. In total, we documented 12,378 species of vascular plants (12 classes, 72 orders, and 268 families) and 1,467 species of vertebrates (5 classes, 43 orders, and 158 families) in Sichuan Province. Broadly, the taxonomic orders fell into two distinct distributional groupings that aligned with the main climatic regions within the province—the middle subtropical zone in eastern Sichuan Province and the plateau climate zone in western Sichuan Province. These observed distributional patterns also aligned closely with the courser regional vegetation data, suggesting that detailed characteristics may be inferred from big data. Therefore, it is feasible to accurately identify key areas, such as biodiversity conservation gaps and potential conservation corridors, from big data. Additionally, our assessment revealed another important pattern—the distributional patterns of smaller taxonomic orders were influenced by a wider and more complex suite of factors than larger orders. On this basis, we propose prioritizing the vulnerable and isolated members of these smaller taxonomic groups for biodiversity conservation and using this information as a foundation for regional biodiversity conservation plans.