Hongze Lake is an important adjusting and storing Lake of the project of South to North water transfer. In this study, the pollution levels, characteristics, distribution, sources, and health risks of 15 perfluorinated compounds (PFASs) were investigated in Hongze Lake, and PFASs were analyzed by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLCMS). The results showed that a total of 15 kinds of PFASs were detected in t Hongze Lake, and the concentrations of ∑ PFASs ranged from 63.43 to 218 ng·L-1,
with a median value of 92.9 ng·L-1
, which was at a low health risk level. The highest mass fraction of PFPeA in the surface water was 60.78%, and mainly short-chain substances were dominant PFASs in surface water. Higher levels of PFASs pollution were mainly concentrated in the center and passage area of the lake, and its spatial distribution shows a decreasing trend from south to north. HCA method was used to analyze the source of PFASs. The results showed that PFASs in surface water of Hongze Lake mainly originated from surface runoff, industrial discharge of rubber products, industrial discharge of food packaging, paper surface treatment stations, discharge of textile and metal plating industry and domestic sewage. The research results can provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of PFASs pollution in Hongze Lake.