As emerging contaminants, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) posed a great threat to human health and ecological environment. It has been confirmed that ARGs would enter livestock and humans through the food chain along with agricultural products, causing greater health risks. However, the current systematic research on ARGs in agricultural planting environment is still insufficient. Based on bibliometrics, this paper systematically summarized the research progress of ARGs in agricultural environment in recent 5 years, and the systematic and embedded study have been performed in the pollution sources, occurrence forms, migration risks, influencing factors and control measures of ARGs. The result showed that studies on ARGs in agricultural environments were few and unfocused. The application of organic fertilizers/manure, irrigation with production and domestic sewage, and the use of disinfectants have all contributed to the accumulation of ARGs in agricultural planting environments, becoming an emerging reservoir for the development of antibiotic resistance. In agricultural planting environments, the ARGs mainly existed in intracellular DNA (iDNA), extracellular DNA (eDNA), mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and the widespread distribution of eDNA and stable exchange of EPS facilitated the accumulation of ARGs. The migration risk of ARGs in agricultural planting environments, known as horizontal gene transfer (HGT), is mainly attributed to the processes such as MGE migration, inter-bacterial transfer of iDNA, natural transformation of eDNA, and exchange of EPS, which are influenced by various factors such as soil physicochemical properties, nutrient elements, antibiotics, and other pollutants under different agricultural land use patterns. Additionally, soil salinization, nutrient and pollutant enrichment in agricultural planting environments could exacerbate the risk of the spread of antibiotic resistance. Currently, composting fermentation and organic carbon addition are the main methods for controlling the spread of antibiotic resistance, but these methods mainly reduce the production of ARGs by degrading and adsorbing antibiotics, which is insufficient to meet the demand for reducing the accumulation of ARGs in soil environments. It is suggested to further study the evolutionary characteristics of ARGs in agricultural environments and conduct comprehensive risk assessments. Measures such as source control, nutrient optimization, and pollutant remediation should be taken to enhance soil stability, reduce the bacterial stress caused by changes in antibiotics, pollutants, and nutrients, inhibiting the accumulation, migration and diffusion of ARGs in agricultural environment.