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基于SPAMS的太原市典型生活区停暖前后PM2.5来源及组成
曹力媛
作者单位E-mail
曹力媛 太原市环境监测中心站 zclyuan@163.com 
摘要:
为分析太原市采暖期和非采暖期PM2.5的特征,利用单颗粒气溶胶质谱仪(SPAMS)分析太原市典型生活区采暖期(2016年3月11—18日)和非采暖期(2016年4月1—4日)PM2.5的来源及组成。结果表明:①采暖期(停暖前)颗粒物有机碳、硫酸盐和多环芳烃等信号强度大于非采暖期(停暖后),而元素碳、硝酸盐、铵盐等反之。②为了尽可能排除气象因素的影响,选取风向风级(二级)相同时段的颗粒物进行分析,停暖前后颗粒物主要化学组分为有机碳、混合碳和元素碳,采暖前有机碳占比(达51.9%)最高,非采暖期元素碳占比(32.6%)最高。采暖期有机碳、高分子有机物和左旋葡聚糖占比明显高于非采暖期,元素碳、矿物质和重金属反之。③停暖前后首要的两类污染源为燃煤和机动车尾气,二者贡献率之和分别高达70.1%和67.4%,可见本地主要受这两类源的影响。燃煤在采暖期为首要污染源,且贡献比例高于非采暖期,而机动车尾气在非采暖期为首要污染源,且比例明显高于采暖期。研究显示,采暖和非采暖期虽然首要污染源有所差异,但在污染过程中,机动车尾气源的贡献比例均高于优良时段,说明无论是采暖期还是非采暖期,除燃煤排放的影响外,机动车尾气的影响也需得到重视,建议加强机动车燃油品质的升级,使用清洁煤,并在重污染时段采取相应的管控措施。
关键词:  SPAMS  源解析  太原市  采暖期
DOI:
分类号:X513
基金项目:国家自然科学(91544226,41375132)及环保部公益性行业专项(201409003) ]。
Sources and components of PM2.5 before and after stopping heating in the ambient air of a typical living quarter in Taiyuan City with mass spectrometry of single particle(SPAMS)
CAO Liyuan
Abstract:
Single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) were used to analyze the sources and chemical characteristics of PM2.5 in a typical living quarter of Taiyuan City during heating (2016/3/11~3/18) and non-heating periods (2016/4/1~4/7), the result showed that: (1) Intensities of organic carbon (OC), sulfate, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) during heating period were higher than that during non-heating period, while intensities of element carbon (EC),nitrate, ammonium were opposite. (2) Particles under the same wind scale during the same period were chosen to exclude the effects of meteorological factors. Results showed that OC, internally mixed organic and elemental Carbon (ECOC) and EC were main components during both periods, and OC were dominant during heating period (51.9%), while EC were dominant during non-heating period (32.6%). Proportions of OC, high molecular weight organic matter (HOC) and levoglucosan (LEV) during heating period were higher than those during non-heating period, while proportions of EC, mineral substance and heavy metal (HM) showed opposite trends.(3) The two main pollution sources during heating period and non-heating period were both coal combustion and vehicle exhausts, sum of which contributed 70.1% and 67.4% to total particles during heating and non-heating periods, respectively. Coal combustion was the primary source during heating period, and showed a higher proportion during heating period, while vehicle exhausts was the primary source during non-heating period, which showed a higher proportion during non-heating period. Research showed that although the primary source during heating and non-heating periods differed a lot, the proportion of vehicle exhausts increased significantly during both periods, indicating that vehicle emission should be treated more carefully during both periods. Corresponding measures should be implemented, such as petrol quality upgrading, using clean coal, and other controlling strategies in heavy pollution periods.
Key words:  SPAMS  source apportionment  Taiyuan City  heating period