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杭州G20峰会空气污染控制状况评估
毛敏娟,吴建,胡德云
作者单位E-mail
毛敏娟 浙江省气象科学研究所 mayammj@mail.ustc.edu.cn 
吴建 浙江省环境保护科学设计研究院  
胡德云 浙江省杭州市气象局  
摘要:
为了实现杭州二十国集团财长和央行行长会议(简称:G20峰会)期间的环境空气质量目标,2016年初开始长江三角洲地区尤其是浙江省加快推进大气污染防治行动,分区分时间节点实施多种污染控制措施。为了评估这些措施实施成效,利用CMAQ(Community Multiscale Air Quality)模式进行了模拟计算及对2015—2016年浙江省AQI(Air Quality Index)、PM2.5、SO2等污染物浓度观测资料进行了分析。结果表明:①模拟计算显示,G20峰会期间各控制措施减排明显,核心区减排比例最大,严控区次之,管控区最小,四种污染物减排比例从大到小顺序依次是SO2、PM2.5、NOx和VOCs。②观测资料分析显示,G20峰会期间浙江省环境空气质量明显改善,不同控制区改善状况不尽相同。与2015年9月、2016年8月对比,2016年9月核心区月均AQI的降幅约为35和25;严控区次之,降幅约为20和15;管控区最弱,降幅约为8和5,PM2.5情况与AQI相似,观测结果与模拟计算一致。③G20峰会期间日均AQI及各种污染成分浓度振荡下降,9月5日达到最低值。9月4-5日杭州市和浙江省日均AQI分别为90、62和77、51,达到国家《环境空气质量标准》(GB3095-2012)中规定的二级标准,日均ρ(PM2.5)分别为37、35 μg/m3和20、21 μg/m3,优于GB3095-2012二级标准。④污染控制措施改变了大气中的首要污染物。以杭州市为例,2016年6-8月没有出现以PM2.5为首要污染物的情况;7-9月没有出现以NO2为首要污染物的情况, 2015仅8月出现这种情况,10月出现跃升,占比高达60%左右;以O3为首要污染物的日数占比从4月开始呈现较往年更快的增长状态,7月出现最大值,并呈现与往年双峰型不同的单峰型结构。研究显示,除有利气象条件外,对污染源的严格控制措施是杭州G20峰会取得良好效果的主要原因。
关键词:  杭州G20峰会  污染控制措施  CMAQ模式  AQI  PM2.5浓度
DOI:
分类号:X513
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(41475134);浙江省公益性社会发展重点项目(2014C23004);浙江省公益性社会发展重大项目(2014C03025)
Evaluation on the Air Pollution Control over Zhejiang Province during the Hangzhou G20 Summit
MAO Minjuan,WU Jian,HU Deyun
Abstract:
In order to evaluate the effects of pollution control measures executed during the Hangzhou G20 Summit, the data from the numerical simulation of CMAQ model and the observations of AQI, PM2.5, SO2 and others were analyzed. The results indicated: (1) the data of numerical simulation indicated that pollution control measures induced obvious emissions reduction. The largest proportion of pollutants reduction was in the core area, the second in strict control area and the last in normal control area. The levels of pollutant reduction were SO2, PM2.5, NOx and VOCs in turn. (2) According to the observational data, the air quality in Zhejiang was improved obviously but with different levels in different control areas during the Hangzhou G20 Summit. Compared to the AQI in September 2015 and August 2016, for example, the improvement in core area was the most obvious in September 2016 with the decreasing amplitude of about 35 and 25, while that those were about 20 and 15 in strict control area, and about 8 and 5 in normal control area. The distributions of PM2.5 concentration showed the same change characteristics as AQI, and thus the actual observations were in agreement with the simulation results. (3) During the Hangzhou G20 Summit, the daily AQI and the pollutants concentrations decreased and reached the lowest values in 5 September in Hangzhou and Zhejiang. From September 4 to 5 in 2016, the daily AQI in Hangzhou and Zhejiang were 90 & 62 and 77 & 51which reached the national secondary standard and the daily average PM2.5 concentrations were 37 μg/m3&35 μg/m3 and 20 μg/m3&21 μg/m3, respectively, which were superior to the national secondary standard. (4) Pollution control measures changed the characteristic of primary pollutants. In Hangzhou, the day proportions of primary pollutant for PM2.5 were 0 from June to August 2016. The day proportions of primary pollutant for NO2 declined to 0 from July to September 2016 and then greatly increased to 60% in October. The day proportions of primary pollutant for O3 appeared quickly risings since in April. 2016 and then reached the maximum in July; meanwhile, its change trend presented unimodal type which was totally different from the bimodal type in the past years. Besides advantageous meteorological conditions, pollution control measures were the key factor to good air quality during the Hangzhou G20 Summit.
Key words:  the Hangzhou G20 Summit  Pollution control measure  CMAQ Model  Air Quality Index  PM2.5 concentration