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关于渗透通风条件建筑结构对室内PM2.5浓度水平影响评价模型研究
陈超,陈紫光,吴玉琴,魏绅,王平,等
作者单位E-mail
陈超 北京工业大学 chenchao@bjut.edu.cn 
陈紫光 北京工业大学  
吴玉琴 北京工业大学  
魏绅 诺森比亚大学  
王平 北京市市政工程设计研究总院有限公司  
摘要:
为定量评价建筑渗透通风及无室内污染源条件下建筑结构(如外窗缝隙结构、房间建筑结构等)对室内ρ(PM2.5)的影响规律,该研究基于研究团队关于北京市东城区、朝阳区6个不同建筑结构的房间室内外ρ(PM2.5)实时监测数据,重点比较分析了建筑结构对室内外ρ(PM2.5)关联特性的影响规律。进一步根据颗粒物穿透特性及沉降特性机理,提出了反映建筑外窗缝隙结构(如缝高、缝深)的无量纲特征参数AP与反映房间建筑结构(如层高、开间、进深)的无量纲特征参数Ak,并构建了二者对室内ρ(PM2.5)影响的评价模型。研究结果表明:当室外PM2.5污染程度与气象条件一定时 ,建筑结构对室内外ρ(PM2.5)之比(即I/O) 影响较大,其范围在0.4~0.7之间。建筑外窗结构对室内ρ(PM2.5)影响程度远大于房间建筑结构。当建筑外窗缝高每降低50%或缝深每提高50%,对应室内ρ(PM2.5)约可下降33.6%与31.9%。研究可为建筑室内PM2.5污染被动控制技术提供参考。
关键词:  PM2.5污染  建筑外窗缝隙通风特性  外窗缝隙结构特征  房间建筑结构特征  评价模型
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目)
Modeling of the influence of the building structure on indoor PM2.5 mass concentration under infiltration
CHEN Chao,CHEN Ziguang,WU Yuqin,WEI Shen,王平,et al
Abstract:
The fine particulate matter, generally known as PM2.5, has great impact on the air quality and human health. Although closing external windows can help prevent outdoor PM2.5 going into indoors, many studies have shown that a significant number of particles can still pass the building fa?ade through the cracks around the window. In order to quantify the influence of external window crack characteristic and relevant parameters, such as room dimension, on the indoor ρ(PM2.5), a longitudinal study monitoring outdoor ρ(PM2.5), indoor ρ(PM2.5) and important outdoor meteorological parameters has been carried out in six offices located in the Dongcheng District and Chaoyang District in Beijing, China. Besides, a model introduced in this paper was developed from an existing model developed by the authors, based on two-month field measured data from five unoccupied offices located in the central area of Beijing, and then was validated against a new dataset measured in another sampling site. In this model, a comprehensive structure characteristic coefficient, A, has been adopted to reflect the influence of external window crack structure and room dimension, respectively. Further, this study adopted a method that can be used to calculate the value of A based on the building’s external window crack structure and room dimension, which is easier to be obtained. The model is capable of quantifying indoor ρ(PM2.5) based on instant outdoor ρ(PM2.5), with a consideration of impact from external window crack characteristic, room dimension and outdoor meteorological conditions, i.e. outdoor wind speed and relative humidity. Prediction results showed that under the same outdoor condition, such as ρ(PM2.5) and temperature, indoor air quality regarding to ρ(PM2.5) was significantly affected by external window crack structure. The I/O ratio (the ratio between indoor ρ(PM2.5) and outdoor ρ(PM2.5)) was generally within 0.4 and 0.7. Additionally, when increasing the window crack height by 50% or the window crack depth by 50%, the corresponding I/O could be decreased by 33.6% and 31.9% respectively. This model should be able to provide guidance on both theoretical analysis of building performance and performance prediction, such as when using dynamic building performance simulation.
Key words:  PM2.5 pollution  infiltration  external window crack structure  room dimension  evaluation model