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菏泽市冬季PM2.5和PM10中碳组分来源解析
张家营,刘保双,毕晓辉,吴建会,冯银厂,张裕芬,张勤勋,等
作者单位E-mail
张家营 南开大学环境科学与工程学院国家环境保护城市空气颗粒物污染防治重点实验室 1060272419@qq.com 
刘保双 南开大学环境科学与工程学院 国家环境保护城市空气颗粒物污染防治重点实验室  
毕晓辉 南开大学环境科学与工程学院 国家环境保护城市空气颗粒物污染防治重点实验室  
吴建会 南开大学环境科学与工程学院 国家环境保护城市空气颗粒物污染防治重点实验室  
冯银厂 南开大学环境科学与工程学院 国家环境保护城市空气颗粒物污染防治重点实验室  
张裕芬 南开大学环境科学与工程学院 国家环境保护城市空气颗粒物污染防治重点实验室  
张勤勋 菏泽市环境监测站  
摘要:
摘要:为研究菏泽市冬季大气颗粒物中碳组分的污染特征和来源,于2016年1月采集菏泽市冬季环境受体中PM2.5和PM10样品,基于热光反射法分析样品中OC(有机碳)、EC(元素碳)及8个碳组分〔OC1、OC2、OC3、OC4、EC1、EC2、EC3和OP(裂解碳)〕的含量,并计算得到了ρ〔Char-EC(燃料燃烧后固体残渣中的 EC)〕和ρ〔Soot-EC(燃烧后气相挥发物质再凝结形成的 EC)〕,从而定性识别颗粒物中碳组分的来源. 结果表明,菏泽市冬季颗粒物中碳组分浓度处于较高水平,PM2.5中的ρ(OC)、ρ(EC)分别为26.34、9.22 μg/m3,PM10样品中ρ(OC)、ρ(EC)分别为31.82、10.71 μg/m3. 采样期间PM2.5中碳组分(OC、EC、OC1、OC2、OC3、OC4、EC1、EC2、EC3、Char-EC、Soot-EC)浓度与PM10中相应各组分浓度的比值均大于0.5(0.60~0.90),表明碳组分多集中于细粒子(PM2.5). 各碳组分浓度具有明显空间差异,各点位PM2.5和PM10中ρ(OC)均显著高于ρ(EC)(T检验,P<0.05). 菏泽市冬季PM2.5和PM10中Char-EC/Soot-EC(二者质量浓度之比)分别为10.04、8.00,且存在显著的空间差异性(T检验,P<0.05). PMF(正定矩阵因子分解法)解析结果表明,菏泽市冬季PM2.5和PM10中碳组分来源主要有4类,包括2类柴油车(1类排放的碳组分中以EC2为主,定义为柴油车-1;1类排放的碳组分中以EC3为主,定义为柴油车-2)、汽油车、生物质燃烧和燃煤混合源,对PM2.5中碳组分的分担率分别为13.98%、5.13%、24.47%、41.97%,对PM10中碳组分的分担率分别为16.08%、8.21%、18.34%、47.35%. 可见,菏泽市冬季PM2.5和PM10中碳的主要来源是柴油车、汽油车、生物质燃烧和燃煤.
关键词:  菏泽市  颗粒物  碳组分  源解析  PMF模型
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目),国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)
Source Apportionment of Carbonaceous Species in PM2.5 and PM10 during Winter in Heze
zhangjiaying,刘保双,毕晓辉,吴建会,冯银厂,张裕芬,张勤勋,et al
Abstract:
Abstract: To investigate on the characteristics and sources of carbonaceous species in PM2.5 and PM10 in Heze city, ambient PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected in January, 2016. OC(organic carbon), EC(element carbon) and eight carbon fractions (OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4, EC1, EC2, EC3 and OP(pyrolytic carbon) were analyzed by using thermal/optical reflectance method, and the concentrations of Char-EC(formed from the solid residues of combustion) and Soot-EC(formed from volatiles within and recondensed from the high-temperature gas phase) were calculated as well. The results indicate that the concentrations of carbonaceous species in particulate matter are higher in winter. The concentrations of OC and EC in PM2.5 are 26.34 μg/m3 and 9.22 μg/m3, respectively, and those in PM10 are 31.82 μg/m3 and 10.71 μg/m3, respectively. During the sampling period, the concentration ratios of carbon fractions (OC, EC, OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4, EC1, EC2, EC3, Char-EC, Soot-EC) in PM2.5 to those in PM10 are greater than 0.5, indicating that these fractions are widely concentrated in fine particles (PM2.5). The carbonaceous species in PM2.5 and PM10 show significant spatial differences, and the concentrations of OC in PM2.5 and PM10 are significantly higher than those of EC in PM2.5 and PM10 at each site (T-test, P<0.05). The Char-EC/Soot-EC (the ratios of the mass concentration) in PM2.5 and PM10 are 10.04 and 8.00, respectively, and there are obvious spatial differences in Char-EC/Soot-EC(T-test, P<0.05). Four emission sources of carbonaceous species in PM2.5 and PM10 are identified by using PMF model during winter in Heze, which mainly include two types of diesel vehicles (the diesel vehicle dominated by EC2 in factor profile is defined as diesel vehicle-1, and the diesel vehicle dominated by EC3 in factor profile is defined as diesel vehicle-2), gasoline vehicle, and the mixture of biomass combustion and coal combustion. The contributions of the four emission sources to carbonaceous species in PM2.5 are 13.98%, 5.13%, 24.47% and 41.97%, respectively, and to those in PM10 are 16.08%, 8.21%, 18.34% and 47.35%, respectively. The main sources of carbonaceous species in PM2.5 and PM10 are diesel vehicles, gasoline vehicles, biomass burning and coal combustion.
Key words:  Heze  particulate matter  carbonaceous species  source apportionment  PMF