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三峡工程运行对洞庭湖水环境及富营养化风险影响研究评述
王婷,王坤,王丽婧,田泽斌,黄威,姜霞,等
作者单位E-mail
王婷 中国环境科学研究院 wangting_btt@163.com 
王坤 中国环境科学研究院  
王丽婧 中国环境科学研究院  
田泽斌 中国环境科学研究院  
黄威 中国环境科学研究院  
姜霞 中国环境科学研究院  
摘要:
洞庭湖的江湖关系受自然因素及人为因素影响,其江湖关系的变化影响洞庭湖水文、水质、水环境容量和营养状态. 近年来洞庭湖的富营养化指数不断升高,但水环境变化及富营养化风险变化的原因错综复杂,如何区分三峡工程运行等人类活动和气候变化等自然因素对洞庭湖水环境、富营养化风险的影响是洞庭湖江湖关系研究的难点. 根据近年来洞庭湖江湖关系、水环境或富营养化水平的相关研究,对洞庭湖由于三峡工程运行导致的江湖关系变化,以及该变化对洞庭湖水环境、富营养化风险的影响的研究进展进行系统梳理、分析、总结和评述. 现阶段研究得出,三峡工程运行导致的江湖关系变化影响洞庭湖不同时段的水环境容量,在一定程度上改善了枯水期和泄水期洞庭湖水质. 但三峡工程运行也使洞庭湖水体透明度增大,蓄水期水流流速降低,东洞庭湖及南洞庭湖滩区在蓄水期的水华发生风险增大. 大型枢纽工程对通江湖泊污染物迁移转化影响的机理分析、对通江湖泊水环境影响的模拟及相关参数研究、对湖泊水环境及富营养化风险的长期影响等方面的研究还有待进一步完善.
关键词:  洞庭湖  江湖关系  富营养化  三峡工程
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(41503101、41403102);国家重点基础研究发展计划( 973) 项目(2012CB417004)
Impacts of Three Gorges Dam Operation on Water Environment and Eutrophication of Dongting Lake: A Review
wangting,王坤,王丽婧,et al
Abstract:
River-lake interaction between the Dongting Lake and the Yangtze River has been significantly altered by physical factors and artificial factors, such as climate variability, rapid socio-economic development in Dongting Lake catchments, and operation of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in the upper Yangtze River. Altered river-lake interaction has great impacts on water environment of Dongting Lake. Water quality deterioration worsens the eutrophication of Dongting Lake recent decades. However, river-lake interaction and its associated mechanisms that give rise to potential impacts from the TGD are difficult to distinguish from interactions and impacts from the other factors. An improved understanding of the impacts of TGD operation on river-lake interaction, and impacts of altered river-lake interaction on water quality and eutrophication of Dongting Lake will provide significantly improved scientific bases to develop regulation strategies for the construction and operation of large hydraulic reservoirs. In this paper, these impacts was summarized and analyzed based on the conclusions of river-lake interaction, water quality and eutrophication trends of Dongting Lake in recent decades. The altered river-lake interaction impacted by TGD operation improved the water quality and increased the environmental capacity of Dongting Lake in dry season (from December to March) and pre-flood releasing (from April to May), but worsened eutrophication level and raised the risk of algal bloom of East Dongting Lake in after-flood impoundment (from September to November). Further studies should be focused on the mechanism of the impacts of large dam projects on pollutants transportation and transformation in a long sequence.
Key words:  Dongting Lake  Lake-river interaction  Eutrophication  Three Gorges Dam