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环境影响评价生态承载力评估研究进展、存在问题及修正对策
范小杉,何萍,黄丽华
作者单位E-mail
范小杉 中国环境科学研究院 北京 fanxs@craes.org.cn 
何萍 中国环境科学研究院 北京  
黄丽华 环境保护部环境工程评估中心;环境保护部环境工程评估中心  
摘要:
环境影响评价生态承载力评估是以评估区域资源环境对项目负面影响效应可持续承受能力为前提优化规划方案,以预防、减轻不良资源环境及生态影响效应而确立的方法制度;生态承载力环评技术标准的科学性和完备性是决定环评文件质量及应用价值的关键,但长期以来生态承载力环评技术一直是环评技术标准体系中最薄弱的环节。为提升生态承载力环评技术的科学性和环评成果的指导应用价值,通过对现有生态承载力环评技术框架、技术方法存在问题的讨论和分析,指出现有生态承载力环评技术标准存在技术方案不完整、评价内容项目针对性弱、评价空间尺度与项目影响范围不匹配等问题,以此为基础提出以提升科学性与实用性为目标革新生态承载力环评技术体系,针对项目生态压力类型及空间格局确立生态承载力评价内容、界定环评空间尺度、发挥3S新技术优势等修正对策建议。研究旨在为开展环评技术革新与探索研究提供借鉴。
关键词:  生态承载力,环评,技术,方案 框架  改进,对策
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划资助(2017YFC0506601),国家自然科学(41501581)范小杉(1976-),女,博士,副研究员,主要从事生态经济与环境管理领域研究,fanxs@craes.org.cn*责任作者:何萍(1968-),女,博士,研究员,主要从事流域生态研究,heping@craes.org.cn
Research Advances, Defects & Countermeasures for Environmental Impact Assessment Technology on Ecological Carrying Capacity
fan xiaoshan shan,何萍,黄丽华
Abstract:
Environmental impact assessment(EIA) of ecological carrying capacity(ECC) is the method system to prevent and mitigate the adverse effects of resources and environment of projects based on capacity assessment of regional sustainable development. The scientificity, practicality and operability of the of the technical standards decide the quality & application value of the EIA documents, while the EIA technology of ECC has always been the weakest section in the EIA technology standard system. Based on detailed discussion and thorough analysis about research advances, technology & methods of ECC, the problems such as incomplete technical framework, content of EIA with weak project relevance, spatial scale of EIA not match project influence range and etc. Then the new EIA technology solutions was proposed for enhancing rationality, practical value and operability of assessment methods, and the suggestions were rendered including: the EIA contents should be decided according to ecological pressure type analysis about the assessed project, the spatial attributes of ECC should be highlighted in whole EIA process, and the new technology such as 3S technology should be used. The research scheme can supply references for the research of EIA technology innovation and exploration about ECC.
Key words:  ecological carrying capacity  EIA, technology, solutions, framework, reform, countermeasures.