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基于DED模型的挥发性有机物健康风险评价研究
张瑞环,钟茂生,姜林,张丹,郑瑞,吴杨,付全凯,等
作者单位E-mail
张瑞环 北京市环境保护科学研究院 zrhuan0318@163.com 
钟茂生 北京市环境保护科学研究院  
姜林 北京市环境保护科学研究院 jianglin@cee.cn 
张丹 北京市环境保护科学研究院  
郑瑞 北京市环境保护科学研究院  
吴杨 北京市环境保护科学研究院  
付全凯 北京市环境保护科学研究院  
摘要:
以邯郸某化工搬迁场地中危化品存储车间场地为案例,采用DED模型(双元平衡解吸模型)评估了二氯甲烷和苯在埋深1.5m和3.5 m处的呼吸暴露健康风险。同时,与基于相应深度实测土壤气中污染物浓度及采用传统J&E(Johnson and Ettinger)模型预测的呼吸暴露健康风险进行了比较验证,以评估DED模型用于预测实际场地VOCs呼吸暴露健康风险的适用性。结果表明:①采用DED模型预测的二氯甲烷健康风险均未超过10-6,在某些点位及深度(2号点浅层、6号点浅层及深层、5号点深层)苯的健康风险超过了10-6。②基于实测土壤气中污染物浓度计算的健康风险显示,二氯甲烷健康风险均未超过10-6,在某些点位及深度(4号和6号点浅层和深层及2号点深层)苯的健康风险超过了10-6。③采用J&E模型预测的二氯甲烷和苯的健康风险均超过10-6,预测结果过于保守。④对比发现,对于二氯甲烷DED模型预测的风险结果与基于土壤气实测污染物浓度预测的结果总体无明显差异,但苯在部分点位前者预测结果低于后者,表明采用DED模型可能会低估苯的健康风险。同时对DED模型各参数进行敏感性分析发现,土壤中土壤气含量、污染物浓度和有机碳含量对风险结果影响较为明显,土壤容重几乎没有影响。建议进一步开展系统的对比研究,评估DED模型在预测挥发性有机物呼吸暴露健康风险的普适性。
关键词:  VOCs  土壤气  呼吸暴露  健康风险
DOI:
分类号:X825
基金项目:环保部公益项目(201509034);北京市自然科学基金资助项目(8164055);北京市科技专项创新环境与平台建设项目(Z161100005016022)
Health Risk Assessment of Volatile Organic Compounds Based on DED Model
ZHANG Rui-huan,ZHONG Mao-sheng,JIANG lin,ZHANG Dan,ZHENG Rui,WU Yang,FU Quan-kai,et al
Abstract:
Vapor inhalation risks of dichloromethane and benzene at the depth of 1.5 m and 3.5 in a hazardous material storage warehouse site were estimated using dual phase equilibrium model (DED model), and the results were compared with those calculated based on measured vapor concentration and using traditional Johnson and Ettinger model (J&E model), in order to evaluate the applicability for estimating the actual health risk of VOCs in sites. The results revealed that the incremental carcinogenic risk of dichloromethane in all sampling locations were below the acceptable level (10-6) while only in four sampling points that the risk of benzene were above 10-6, which fit well with the results calculated based on measured vapor concentration. However, the results calculated using J&E model indicated that the risk from these two contaminants were both above the acceptable level. Furthermore, the risks calculated using J&E model were 4~5 orders of magnitude higher than those calculated based on measured vapor concentration for dichloromethane while 1~4 orders of magnitude higher for benzene. The results conducted by J&E model show a high level of conservative property. Risks of some points predicted by DED model are orders of magnitude lower than which were predicted based on measured vapor concentration for benzene. Meanwhile, a sensitivity analysis was conducted for the parameters used in DED model. The results show all soil gas porosity, concentrations of VOCs in soil, and organic carbon content have a evident inpact to the risk. To the contrary, soil bulk density has few impact to the derived risk. Therefore, it is recommended that systematic comparision studies should be carried out to evaluate the feasibility of using DED model to calculate the vapor intrusion risk with the ultimate aim to reduce the conservatism of the currently used J&E model.
Key words:  VOCs  soil gas  breathing exposure  health risk