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成都市PM10中碳质气溶胶长期来源特点研究
关辽,杨卓然,马彤,宋丹林,田瑛泽,冯银厂,等
作者单位E-mail
关辽 南开大学环境科学与工程学院,国家环境保护城市空气颗粒物污染防治重点实验室,天津 tianyingze@hotmail.com 
杨卓然 南开大学环境科学与工程学院  
马彤 南开大学环境科学与工程学院,国家环境保护城市空气颗粒物污染防治重点实验室,天津  
宋丹林 成都市环境保护科学研究院  
田瑛泽 南开大学环境科学与工程学院,国家环境保护城市空气颗粒物污染防治重点实验室,天津  
冯银厂 南开大学环境科学与工程学院,国家环境保护城市空气颗粒物污染防治重点实验室,天津  
摘要:
大气颗粒物中包含多种组分的气溶胶,碳质气溶胶由于对人体健康、能见度有较大影响,受到越来越多的关注,然而,关于碳质气溶胶的长期变化规律研究十分缺乏。研究采集了成都市2009-2013年的PM10样品,对其中所含的无机元素、水溶性离子,碳组分分别进行了测定,并通过“PMF(正定矩阵因子分解法)-比值”模型分别对PM10和所含的碳质气溶胶的来源进行了分析。研究发现5月和冬季的碳质气溶胶浓度较高:其中冬季的OC(有机碳)/EC(元素碳)比值较高,并且模型计算结果也显示冬季SOC增多,表明冬季可能有更多的二次有机碳(SOC)生成;5月的char-EC/soot-EC(char-EC= EC1-OP,soot-EC=EC2+EC3,char-EC和soot-EC可更好的区分源类)比值较高,K含量也较高,表明可能有更多的生物质燃烧排放。PM10解析共发现6类源,依次为地壳扬尘(26.5%)、二次硫酸盐(25.1%)、燃煤&生物质燃料混合源(17.3%)、二次硝酸盐&二次有机碳混合源(12.3%)、机动车源(11.8%)、水泥尘源(7.0%);碳质气溶胶解析发现OC主要来源依次为机动车源(VE,38.2%)、燃煤&生物质燃烧源(CC+BC,33.1%)、二次有机碳(SOC, 25.3%),char-EC的主要来源是机动车和燃煤&生物质燃烧源,分别占50.5%和45.4%,soot-EC则主要受机动车影响(达73.2%)。研究显示,成都市的PM10主要来自于扬尘、二次反应、燃煤同生物质燃烧;而碳质气溶胶主要来自于机动车、燃煤和生物质燃烧。
关键词:  碳质气溶胶  PMF(正定矩阵因子分解法)-比值  char-EC/soot-EC  源贡献
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基金项目:国家重点研发计划“ 大气污染成因与控制技术研究” 重点专项“ 大气污染多组分在线源解析集成技术” 项目(2016YFC0208500);天津市自然科学基金(16JCQNJC08700)
Long-Term Source Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol in PM10 of Chengdu,China
GUANLIAO,杨卓然,马彤,宋丹林,田瑛泽,冯银厂,et al
Abstract:
Atmospheric particulate matter is comprised of a variety of components. Due to the large proportion and the influence on human health and visibility, the carbonaceous aerosol has attracted more attention. However, the research about the long-term variation of carbonaceous aerosol was scarce. PM10 samples were collected during 2009-2013 in Chengdu. The inorganic elements, water-soluble ions and carbon composition were determined. What’s more, PMF-ratio model is applied to quantify the sources of PM10 and carbonaceous aerosol. Results presents that concentrations of carbonaceous fractions peak in winter and May. OC/EC ratio is higher in winter and model results show that SOC increased in winter, which may indicate more secondary carbon (SOC) in winter. Furthermore, char-EC/soot-EC and K concentration is higher in May, which may illustrate more biomass combustion in May. Six source categories are identified, including crust dust (26.5%), secondary sulfate (25.1%), coal combustion & straw burning (17.3%), secondary nitrate & secondary organic carbon (12.3%), vehicle exhaust (11.8%), cement dust (7.0%). Major contributors to OC in PM10 are vehicular exhaust (38.2%), coal combustion & straw burning (33.1%) and SOC (25.3%). The vehicle exhaust and coal combustion & biomass combustion contributed 50.5% and 45.4% of char-EC. Vehicle exhaust dominates soot-EC (73.2%) in PM10. This work has shown that PM10 mainly comes from the crust dust, secondary sulfate, coal combustion & straw burning. The carbonaceous aerosol mainly comes from the vehicle exhaust and coal combustion & straw burning.
Key words:  carbonaceous aerosol  PMF-ratio model  char-EC/soot-EC  source contribution