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我国东部浅水湖泊水生态效应特征
张亚丽1, 高 楹2, 吴锋1, 霍守亮3
1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所;2.首都师范大学燕都学院;3.中国环境科学研究院
摘要:
为探究我国东部浅水湖泊生态系统的时空异质性及其演替的响应指标,基于东部浅水湖泊长时间序列(1986—2014年)的监测数据,分析了不同湖泊类型的水质和浮游植物群落分布特征,并综合运用稳态转换理论和典范对应分析方法(CCA),研究了富营养化湖泊浮游植物群落的演替特征以及响应因子。结果表明:①从水系上看,太湖水系湖泊的水质最差,ρ(TP)、ρ(TN)、ρ(Chla)浓度最高,分别为(0.276±0.606) g/L、(3.563±1.430) g/L和(14.801±10.117) μg/L,ρ(SD)为(0.486±0.272) m;从水文连通性上看,湖泊的水质为通江湖泊>非通江湖泊>阻隔湖泊。②空间分布上,湖口以下干流浮游植物密度最高,为2.674×107 cells/L。蓝藻门为东部浅水湖泊的优势种群,藻密度最高达1.615×107 cells/L,绿藻门和硅藻门次之,黄藻门密度最少,仅为3.951×103 cells/L。③东部浅水湖泊生态系统演替发生在Chla浓度为5.21~10.57μg/L阈值范围内。④以东部典型湖泊-太湖为例,浮游植物群落分别在1997—1998年和2001—2002年两个时间梯度达到最大值。电导率和ρ(TN)是影响太湖浮游植物群落分布的显著因子。研究显示,随着东部浅水湖泊水质恶化,浮游植物群落结构特征发生突变,导致其生态系统发生演替。预防东部浅水湖泊生态系统演变应严控电导率和ρ(TN)。
关键词:  浮游植物,生态效应,生态系统演替,东部浅水湖泊
DOI:
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基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2012ZX07101-002)
The characteristics of ecological effects in the Eastern shallow lakes, China
zhangyali,et al
Abstract:
This study investigates the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of ecosystem and response indicators of ecosystem succession in the Eastern shallow lakes. The monitoring data over 1986 to 2014 were collected to qualify the distribution characteristics of water quality and phytoplankton community of different lake types. The succession feature and its response indicators of phytoplankton community in eutrophic lakes were explored by using regime shift theory and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The results show that: (1) From the perspective of water systems, Taihu water system had the highest concentrations of TP (0.276±0.606 g/L), TN (3.563±1.430 g/L), and Chla (14.801±10.117 μg/L), while the value of Secci-depth (SD) was (0.486±0.272) m. In terms of hydrological connectivity, Yangtze-connected lakes had the best water quality, followed by non-river-connected lakes, and river-isolated lakes.(2) The spatial distribution of phytoplankton varied with the highest density of 2.674×107 cells/L. Cyanophyta was the predominant alga in the Eastern shallow lakes with the density of up to 1.615×107 cells/L, followed by chlorophyta and bacillariophyta, while the lowest density was only 3.951×103 cells/L for Xanthophyta. (3) The ecosystem succession in the Eastern shallow lakes occurred at Chla concentration threshold of 5.21~10.57μg/L. (4) For example, in Taihu Lake, the density of phytoplankton community reached the maximum in 1997-1998 and 2001-2002. In addition, conductivity and TN concentration were significant factors affecting the distribution of phytoplankton communities in Taihu Lake. The results indicates that the change points of phytoplankton community structure were detected along with the deterioration of water quality in the Eastern shallow lakes, thus attributing to the ecosystem succession. The key to prevent the degradation of shallow lake ecosystems in the Eastern Plain is to strictly control the conductivity and TN concentration.
Key words:  Phytoplankton, ecological effects, ecosystem succession, Eastern shallow lakes