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天津冬季一次污染过程中NOx和O3的立体分布特征
袁建昭, 赵若杰, 殷宝辉, 王歆华, 韩斌, 杨文, 白志鹏
中国环境科学研究院
摘要:
由于大气是一个复杂介质,低层大气中湍流的存在使物质和能量的交换很剧烈,污染物的扩散传输现象明显。对不同高度不同区域的低层大气做立体观测,获取气态污染物浓度分布最直接的资料很有必要。综合利用地面观测站点、系留气球和飞机平台,2016年11月25—26日天津武清高村一次污染天气条件下对NOx和O3进行立体观测,得到了污染物的地面、垂直和低空区域分布特征,并结合气象因子进行分析研究。观测结果表明,地面φ(NOx)水平较高,日均浓度为230×10-9,超过了GB3095—2012《环境空气质量标准》二级标准的浓度限值,反映了高村冬季较高的污染水平,主要受当地交通源排放的影响。φ(NOX)随高度的上升呈下降趋势,受风速的影响明显,主要积聚在逆温层以下。低空φ(NOX)市区高于郊区,而处于更远郊区的高村φ(NOx)与市区相当,也反映了高村本地较高的NOx污染。高村地面φ(O3)低,日最大8小时平均浓度为8×10-9,反映了冬季低温辐射弱、光化学反应强度低的特点。随高度增加φ(O3)呈上升趋势,垂直分布特征主要与温度层结有关。低空φ(O3)呈现郊区高于市区,高村(远郊区)高于近郊区的特征。地面、气球与飞机观测研究均显示,φ(NOx)的升高导致φ(O3)下降,这可能与高村冬季的φ(VOCs)/ φ(NOx)比值偏低有关,需要结合VOCs观测数据做进一步分析。
关键词:  臭氧  氮氧化物  立体观测  污染特征
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划课题(2014BAC23B01);国家重大科学仪器设备开发专项(2011YQ060111,2013YQ090875)
Three-dimensional Distribution Characteristics of NOx and O3 during a winter atmospheric pollution in Tianjin
yuanjianzhao, zhaoruojie, yinbaohui, wangxinhua, hanbin, yangwen, baizhipeng
Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences
Abstract:
The atmosphere is a complex medium. The presence of turbulence in lower atmosphere makes the exchange of matter and energy intense, and the diffusion of air pollutants is evident. It is necessary to obtain the concentration distribution of gaseous pollutants in the lower atmosphere in different regions and different heights. The φ(NOx) and φ(O3) were measured during a heavy air pollution episode in Gaocun of Tianjin from November 25th to 26th, 2016 by using ground observation, tethered balloon and aircraft synthetically. The characteristics pollutants at ground, vertical and low-altitude areas were obtained and analyzed combining with meteorological factors. Observation results showed that the level of φ(NOx) on the ground exceeded GB3095—2012, (the average daily concentration was 230×10-9), which indicated high pollution level in Gaocun during winter, were mainly affected by the local traffic sources. The φ(NOx) decreased with the increase of altitude which was obviously affected by the wind speed, NOx mainly accumulated below the inversion layer. φ(NOx) at low altitude of urban areas was higher than the suburbs. While in the far suburb of Gaocun, showing φ(NOx) was comparable with the urban areas indicating high local NOx pollution in Gaocun. The daily maximum 8 hours average concentration of ozone was 8×10-9. The low ground φ(O3) reflected the low temperature and low photochemical reaction in winter. With the increase of height, φ(O3) showed a rising trend and its vertical distribution was mainly related with temperature stratification. The low-level φ(O3) was higher in the suburbs than that in the urban areas, and the Gaocun concentration was higher than that in the suburbs. The study shows that the increase of φ(NOx) leads to the decrease of φ(O3), which may be related to the low ratio of φ(VOCs)/φ(NOx) in the winter of Gaocun, and further analysis is needed.
Key words:  O3  NOx  stereoscopic observation  pollution characteristics