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典型“组群式”城市夏季大气颗粒物中水溶性离子化学特征及来源
欧盛菊1,2, 吴丽萍1, 王信梧3, 张向炎3, 任丽红2, 杨文2, 白志鹏2
1.天津城建大学环境与市政工程学院;2.中国环境科学研究院大气化学与气溶胶科技创新基地;3.淄博市环境监测站
摘要:
为探究典型“组群式”城市——淄博夏季大气颗粒物中水溶性离子化学特征及来源,于2016年8月对淄博市6个城市点(桓台、张店、临淄、淄川、博山、周村)、2个郊区点(沂源、高青)及1个清洁对照点(鲁山)同步进行PM2.5和PM10采样,分析了大气颗粒物质量浓度及9种水溶性离子的空间分布特征,并利用主成分分析方法探讨了PM2.5和PM10中水溶性离子的主要来源. 结果表明:①淄博夏季各点位(清洁对照点除外)PM2.5和PM10日均质量浓度范围分别为57.2~112和77.4~163μg/m3,空间分布特征表现为城市点>郊区点>清洁对照点;各点位PM2.5/PM10(质量浓度之比)在0.61~0.80之间,表明淄博夏季大气颗粒物污染以PM2.5为主. ②水溶性离子在PM2.5和PM10中占比分别为53.3%和48.5%,其中二次无机离子分别占总离子浓度的91.4%和83.7%,表明大气颗粒物主要以二次离子为主,并且主要富集在PM2.5中;PM2.5中∑阴离子/∑阳离子(摩尔浓度之比)值为1.07,PM10中该比值为0.87,说明PM2.5接近中性,而PM10呈弱碱性. ③淄博夏季各点位离子来源具有一定的空间差异性,城市点、郊区点与清洁对照点间的分歧系数均高于0.2,而城市点位间分歧系数低于0.2,说明城市点位间的水溶性离子的化学性质较为相似. ④主成分分析表明,淄博夏季大气中PM2.5中的水溶性离子可能主要来源于工业源、生物质锅炉、燃煤、二次源、道路尘及建筑尘,而PM10中的离子主要来源于道路尘、建筑尘、海盐及二次源. 研究显示,淄博市颗粒物污染严重,具有明显的空间分布特征,水溶性离子来源复杂,应采取分区,多源控制的污染防治对策.
关键词:  淄博  PM2.5  PM10  水溶性离子  来源
DOI:
分类号:X513
基金项目:中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务专项(2016YSKY-023);国家自然科学基金(41705136)
Chemical Characteristics and Sources of Water-soluble Ions of Airborne Particles during Summer in the Typical “Group” City
OU Shengju, WU Liping1, WANG Xinwu2, ZHANG Xiangyan2, REN Lihong3, YANG Wen3, BAI Zhipeng3
1.School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering of Tianjin Chengjian University;2.Environmental Monitoring Station of Zibo City;3.Atmospheric Chemistry and Aerosol Division Science and Technology Innovation Research Base of Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science
Abstract:
To investigate the characteristics and sources of water-soluble ions of atmospheric particulate matters, PM2.5 and PM10 were collected simultaneously at six urban sites (Huantai, Zhangdian, Linzi, Zichuan, Boshan, Zhoucun), two suburban sites (Yiyuan, Gaoqing) and one background site (Lushan) in summer (August 2016) in the typical “Group” City: Zibo City, Shandong Province. Mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 and spatial distribution characteristics of nine water-soluble ions were analyzed; the sources of water-soluble ions associated with PM2.5 and PM10 were identified by using principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed: the daily average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 at all urban and suburban sites were 57.2~112 μg/m3 and 77.4~163 μg/m3, respectively; the spatial distribution characteristics of particles mass concentrations was urban sites>suburban sites>background site. The value of PM2.5/PM10 was 0.61~0.80 in all sites, indicating PM2.5 was the main pollutant during sampling period. Water-soluble ions accounted for 53.3% and 48.5% in the mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Secondary inorganic ions (sulfate, nitrate and ammonium) were the most abundant fraction with the contribution of more than 91.4% and 83.7% to total water-soluble ions in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively, suggesting that the levels of secondary ions were relatively high and mainly enriched in PM2.5. The value of ∑anion/∑cationic was 1.07 for PM2.5, and 0.87 for PM10, illustrating that PM2.5 was in neutral while PM10 was weakly alkaline. Coefficient of Divergence (CD) values between urban or suburban sites and background site were higher than 0.2, while among urban sites were lower than 0.2, manifesting the chemical characteristics of water-soluble ions were similar among urban sites. PCA results showed that the water-soluble ions of PM2.5 might be from the industrial sources, biomass boiler, coal combustion, secondary reaction, road dust and construction dust, while the water-soluble ions of PM10 may be from road dust, construction dust, sea salt and secondary reaction. In conclusion, the PM pollution was heavy during summer in Zibo City, and the concentrations and chemical components varied with sites. Different countermeasures should be taken according to the pollution characteristics of different sites.
Key words:  Zibo  PM2.5  PM10  water-soluble ions  sources apportionment