引用本文:王文兴,丁国安.中国降水酸度和离子浓度的时空分布[J].环境科学研究,1997,10(2):1-7.
WANG Wenxing,DING Guoan.The Geographical Distribution of Ion Concentration in Precipitation over China[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,1997,10(2):1-7.]
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中国降水酸度和离子浓度的时空分布
王文兴,丁国安
作者单位
王文兴 中国环境科学研究院北京 100012 
丁国安 中国气象科学研究院北京 100081 
摘要:
1991~1995年在全国进行了酸雨观测,建立了覆盖全国的具有区域代表性的酸沉降监测网,含271个测站?降水的pH值和电导率在现场采样后立即测量,降水样品的化学分析则在实验室里进行?主要离子SO2-4,NO-3,NH+4,Ca2+浓度的加权均值分别为125.86,19.96,67.89和80.41μeq/L?由离子浓度地理分布图看出,这些离子浓度地理分布状况因离子而异?值得注意的是降水中SO2-4和NO-3浓度,北方非酸雨区甚高于南方酸雨区,这说明降水的酸度并不简单地决定于降水中SO2-4和NO-3的绝对浓度,而决定于这些离子对于Ca2+和NH+4的相对浓度?发现了降水年均pH值低至4的一些地区,此值可能是目前世界年降水酸性最强的地区?文中还对代表性地区1986~1993年降水化学特征进行了分析,结果表明降水的酸度仍在升高?
关键词:  降水化学  离子浓度地理分布  
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家“八五”科技攻关课题(85-912-01-01)
The Geographical Distribution of Ion Concentration in Precipitation over China
WANG Wenxing,DING Guoan
Abstract:
The precipitation chemistry over China had been studied on a nation-wide monitoring network from 1991 to 1995. Precipitation samples and other meteorological data were collected at the National Acid Deposition Monitoring Network with 271 sample sites over the country. Precipitation pH and electro-conductivity were measured in the field and the chemical analysis of collected samples were conducted in the laboratory. The annual precipitation weighted concentrations of SO2-4, NO-3, NH+4 and Ca2+ are 125.86, 19.62, 67.89 and 80.41μeq/L, respectively. The geographical distribution of these ion concentrations in precipitation shows that the scenarios vary from ion to ion. It is interesting to point out that the SO2-4 concentrations in the northern non-acid rain areas are generally much higher than that in the southern acid rain areas. It means that the rain acidity is not only determined by the absolute concentrations of SO2-4 and NO-3, but by the relative concentration of basic and acid ions in precipitation. It is found that the rain pH has a minimum annual average value which is lower than 4.0 in some areas, and it is probably the lowest pH in precipitation in the world. The characteristics of chemical deposition of rain water for typical areas were analyzed, and results showed that the rain acidity is still increasing over China.
Key words:  Precipitation chemistry  Geographical distribution of ion concentrations