引用本文:刁周玮,石 磊.中国光伏电池组件的生命周期评价[J].环境科学研究,2011,24(5):571-579.
DIAO Zhou-wei,SHI Lei.Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Panels in China[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2011,24(5):571-579.]
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中国光伏电池组件的生命周期评价
刁周玮,石 磊
作者单位
刁周玮 清华大学环境科学与工程系 国家环境保护生态工业重点实验室 北京 100084 
石 磊 清华大学环境科学与工程系 国家环境保护生态工业重点实验室 北京 100084 
摘要:
在收集2009年我国光伏组件生产的主流及最优技术水平数据的基础上,采用Ecoinvent数据库中辅助材料的生命周期数据,开展了我国光伏组件生命周期评价研究,计算了能量回收期和全球变暖潜值,并探讨了不同生产步骤和生产参数的影响.结果表明:太阳能级多晶硅生产和铸锭、切片工艺的技术水平对光伏产品的能量消耗和环境影响最大,我国主流技术水平情景下的产品能耗和环境影响远大于最优技术水平.对于我国光伏产业来说,要降低光伏产品的环境影响,应着重从改进多晶硅生产技术和提高硅片切割效率入手.
关键词:  光伏电池组件  多晶硅  生命周期评价  能量回收期  全球变暖潜值
DOI:
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基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2008ZX07313-005);国家环保公益性行业科研专项(201009059)
Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Panels in China
DIAO Zhou-wei,SHI Lei
Abstract:
The life cycle of photovoltaic (PV) modules produced by Chinese industry was assessed based on collecting data from mainstream and best technologies for PV module production in China in 2009,as well as adopting life cycle data of auxiliary materials from the Ecoinvent database.This research also analyzed Energy Pay-back Time as well as Global Warming Potential of PV panels,and considered the influence of different production processes and parameters.Results show that,for PV products,the technology level of the solar-grade polycrystalline silicon production and the casting/wafering processes are the most energy intensive and have the greatest impact on the environment.Products made using the mainstream technology have far more energy requirements and environmental impacts than the ones made using the best technology.For the Chinese PV industry,it is important to improve technologies for polycrystalline silicon production and wafering to reduce the energy costs and environmental impacts of PV products.
Key words:  photovoltaic panels  polycrystalline silicon  Life Cycle Assessment  Energy Pay-back Time  Global Warming Potential