引用本文:叶 春,李春华,邓婷婷.论湖滨带的结构与生态功能[J].环境科学研究,2015,28(2):171-181.
YE Chun,LI Chunhua,DENG Tingting.Structures and Ecological Functions of Lake Littoral Zones[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2015,28(2):171-181.]
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论湖滨带的结构与生态功能
叶 春1,2, 李春华1,2, 邓婷婷1,2
1.中国环境科学研究院湖泊工程技术中心, 北京 100012 ;2.中国环境科学研究, 环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室, 北京 100012
摘要:
湖滨带作为陆地和湖泊之间的过渡带,是健康湖泊生态系统不可缺少的有机组成部分,属于生态交错带的一种. 明晰湖滨带的结构与生态功能对湖滨带及湖泊的水环境改善与生态修复十分重要. 随着水环境因子的梯度变化,湖滨带的空间结构在横向、纵向和轴向分布上都表现出明显的圈层结构特点. 横向结构由陆向辐射带、水位变幅带和水向辐射带组成;纵向结构由空气、水体、底泥构成;轴向结构则是不同岸段湖滨带的景观变化和层次结构,体现整个湖滨带的全貌和湖滨带类型的组合. 湖滨带的时间结构体现在湖滨带生物及其生境条件随着时间推移的演化规律上,并在“时-空结构”中和人的积极存在紧密联系在一起. 影响时间结构的因素包括生物节律、气候因子、水动力等. 湖滨带在生态环境方面的功能可归纳为6项:污染物截留与净化、捕集和抑制藻类、提高湖滨带的生物多样性、提供野生动植物栖息地、控制沉积和侵蚀、调蓄洪水.
关键词:  湖滨带  结构  功能  湖泊  生态修复
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基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2012ZX07101-009)
Structures and Ecological Functions of Lake Littoral Zones
YE Chun1,2, LI Chunhua1,2, DENG Tingting1,2
1.Center of Lake Engineering & Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China ;2.State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
Abstract:
The lake littoral zone, an important ecotone that is a transitional area between land and lake, is indispensable for healthy lake ecosystems. In order to make a reasonable proposal for water environment improvement and ecological restoration, it is important to study ecological structures and functions of lake littoral zones. As water environment factors change gradually, the structure of the lake littoral zone shows its distinct layers in vertical, longitudinal and axial distributions. The transverse section structure consists of zones facing land, facing water and water-level changes. The longitudinal structure consists of air, water and soil. The axial structure is the landscape change as well as the layer structures with different parts of the lake littoral zone that reflect the full view and the combination of different types of lake littoral zones. The time structure of lake litorral zones reflects the evolution rules of organisms and their habitats. Both spatial and temporal structures are significantly correlated with human activities. The factors influencing time structure include biological rhythms, climatic factors and hydrodynamic factors. Six ecological functions of littoral zones are summarized, including contaminant retention and purification, algae trapping and inhibition, lake biodiversity improvement, wildlife habitat, flood storage, deposition and erosion control.
Key words:  lake littoral zone  structure  function  lake  ecological restoration