引用本文:赵文慧,徐 谦,李令军,姜 磊,张大伟,陈 添,等.北京平原区城乡结合部燃煤散烧及污染物排放量估算[J].环境科学研究,2015,28(6):869-876.
ZHAO Wenhui,XU Qian,LI Lingjun,JIANG Lei,ZHANG Dawei,CHEN Tian,et al.Estimation of Air Pollutant Emissions from Coal Burning in the Semi-Rural Areas of Beijing Plain[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2015,28(6):869-876.]
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北京平原区城乡结合部燃煤散烧及污染物排放量估算
赵文慧1, 徐 谦1, 李令军1, 姜 磊1, 张大伟1, 陈 添2
1.北京市环境保护监测中心, 北京 100048 ;2.北京市环境保护局, 北京 100048
摘要:
利用2013年秋季(8─10月)多景镶嵌的高分辨率遥感卫星数据,解译得到2013年北京市平原区居住平房的空间分布及面积,并结合典型区实地调查,细化平房面积. 在此基础上,利用调查统计数据(包括平房面积、散煤与蜂窝煤用量等指标)估算了居住平房区散煤和蜂窝煤用量,并结合相关文献调研的无烟煤排放因子,测算北京平原区平房燃煤PM、SO2、NOx、PAHs、BC(黑碳)和OC(有机碳)的排放量. 结果表明:2013年在北京城市发展新区,居住平房分布较为集中,并且燃煤总量最大,达到225.3×104 t,特别是房山、顺义和通州,三者均在3.5×105 t以上;在城市拓展区,居住平房密度相对较小,但燃煤总量相对较大,为79.4×104 t. 北京市平原区(不包括核心区)居住平房燃煤消耗共排放PM、SO2、NOx、BC、OC、PAHs分别为 4 882.1、14 200.0、7 614.9、18.0、132.3和0.5 t. 位于北京西南、东南部的房山、大兴和通州等地大气污染排放水平较高,其中房山区的PM和NOx排放量最高,分别达到760.5和1 162.6 t. 针对城市发展新区和生态涵养区每年高达3.0×106 t的高用煤量和3 000 t以上颗粒物的高排放量,应加快煤改气和集中供热建设,进一步推广清洁能源.
关键词:  北京  遥感监测  居住平房区  燃煤  污染物排放量
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:北京市科技计划项目(Z121100000312035);国家环境保护公益性行业科研专项(201409005);国家科技支撑计划项目(2014BAC23B03)
Estimation of Air Pollutant Emissions from Coal Burning in the Semi-Rural Areas of Beijing Plain
ZHAO Wenhui1, XU Qian1, LI Lingjun1, JIANG Lei1, ZHANG Dawei1, CHEN Tian2
1.Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center, Beijing 100048, China ;2.Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau, Beijing 100048, China
Abstract:
Abstract: The spatial pattern of residential areas in the semi-rural areas of Beijing plain was interpreted with high resolution remote sensing images in 2013. Then, the residential built-up areas were refined by a combination of field sampling and imagery interpretations. A statistical model was further adapted to estimate the consumption quantities of raw-coal-chunk stove and honeycomb briquettes in residential areas with the support of statistical records from the built-up areas. Finally, the coal burning emissions of particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) were estimated from emission factors collected from the relevant literature. The results showed:the new urban development district in Beijing had the highest residential density, where the total consumed coal was 2.253 million tons per year, especially in the districts of Fangshan, Shunyi and Tongzhou, where the total coal consumption was more than 0.35 million tons per year. Special attention should be paid to the high coal consumption areas since they have more responsibility for pollution reduction than other districts. The coal emissions also cannot be ignored in the lower density residential urban districts of Beijing, in which coal was consumed up to 0.794 million tons per year. The emissions of PM, SO2, NOx, BC, OC and PAHs in the semi-rural areas of Beijing plain were 4,2.1,4,200.0,7,614.9,8.0,2.3 and 0.5 tons, respectively. The southeast and southwest of Beijing were the “hot-spot” areas with heavy air pollution emissions, especially in Fangshan, Daxing and Tongzhou districts. The highest emissions of PM and NOx were in Fangshan district, reaching 760.5 and 1,2.6 tons, respectively. For the growth of coal use (more than 3 million tons) and pollution emissions (the emissions of PM were more than two kilotons) in suburban areas, we should take appropriate measures to promote coal shift to gas and clean energy.
Key words:  Beijing  remote sensing  residential area  coal burning  pollutant emission