引用本文:上官宇先,秦晓鹏,赵冬安,赵 龙,王林权,侯 红,李发生,等.利用大型土柱自然淋溶条件下研究土壤重金属的迁移及形态转化[J].环境科学研究,2015,28(7):1015-1024.
SHANGGUAN Yuxian,QIN Xiaopeng,ZHAO Dong an,ZHAO Long,WANG Linquan,HOU Hong,LI Fasheng,et al.Migration and Transformation of Heavy Metals in Soils by Lysimeter Study with Field Condition[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2015,28(7):1015-1024.]
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利用大型土柱自然淋溶条件下研究土壤重金属的迁移及形态转化
上官宇先1,2, 秦晓鹏2, 赵冬安3, 赵 龙2, 王林权1, 侯 红2, 李发生2
1.西北农林科技大学资源环境学院, 陕西 杨凌 712100 ;2.中国环境科学研究院,环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室, 北京 100012 ;3.屈家岭管理区管委会, 湖北 荆江 431821
摘要:
为研究不同重金属在土壤中的迁移和形态转化,通过分层填装土柱,在土柱0~5 cm深度范围内添加Pb、Ag、Bi、In、Sb和Sn等重金属污染土壤,并在自然条件下淋溶4 a,分析各重金属在红壤、潮土、黑土和砂土中的迁移速率及其形态组成. 结果表明:①在>30 cm深度范围内,红壤、潮土和黑土中各重金属质量分数与其相应本底值相比变化不大;与试验前土壤相比,砂土整个剖面中6种重金属质量分数均较高. ②6种重金属在4种土壤中的残留率表现为砂土<潮土<黑土<红壤;对于0~10 cm土壤中Pb的残留率,在潮土中大于Ag和Sb,在黑土中大于Ag,在红壤中大于In,在砂土中则大于Sn. ③模拟试验后残留在土柱中的重金属主要分布在土壤表层(0~30 cm),而深层(>30 cm)较少;6种重金属在红壤、潮土、黑土和砂土中的残留率平均值分别为98.0%、65.1%、65.9%和56.5%. ④与添加污染土壤之前相比,试验后土壤中残渣态等稳定形态重金属质量分数较低,其中Pb、In和Sb均以碳酸盐结合态和有机金属络合态为主,Ag和Sn分别以有机金属络合态、双氧水可提取有机结合态和有机金属络合态、无定形铁锰氧化物结合态为主,而Bi则以碳酸盐结合态和双氧水可提取有机结合态为主. 结果显示,红壤中Pb的迁移风险较低,潮土和黑土中Ag、Sb的迁移风险较高,而砂土中Sn和Sb的迁移风险需要格外关注.
关键词:  大型土柱  土壤  重金属  迁移  形态
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41271338);国家重大科学仪器设备开发项目(2011YQ14014908)
Migration and Transformation of Heavy Metals in Soils by Lysimeter Study with Field Condition
SHANGGUAN Yuxian1,2, QIN Xiaopeng2, ZHAO Dong an3, ZHAO Long2, WANG Linquan1, HOU Hong2, LI Fasheng2
1.College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China ;2.State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China ;3.Management Committee of Qujialing District, Jingmen 431821, China
Abstract:
Abstract: The migration and chemical transformation of Pb, Ag, Bi, In, Sb and Sn in four soils were investigated using lysimeter experiments. The polluted soils were added to the soil surface and were exposed to the natural environment to ensure that they were at or close to field capacity for four years. The results showed that:1) Compared with the background values, the six heavy metals did not increase significantly in deep soil layers (>30 cm) in Primosol, Isohumosol and Ferrosol after four years. The heavy metals were significantly increased in all the soil layers in Sand soil (0-135 cm). 2) The rates of the heavy metals retained in the lysimeters were in the following order:Sand soil2O2 extractable organic-bound and amorphous metal oxide-bound. Bi was mainly associated with carbonate-bound and H2O2 extractable organic-bound. Pb had greater migration risk than the other heavy metals in the Ferrosol, while the Ag and Sb had greater migration risk in the Primosol and Isohumosol. Sn and Sb were of much concern in the Sand soil.
Key words:  lysimeter  soil  heavy metal  migration  speciation