引用本文:李文涛,高庆先,王 立,马占云,刘俊蓉,李 崇,张艳艳,等.我国城市生活垃圾处理温室气体排放特征[J].环境科学研究,2015,28(7):1031-1038.
LI Wentao,GAO Qingxian,WANG Li,MA Zhanyun,LIU Junrong,LI Chong,ZHANG Yanyan,et al.Emission Characteristics of Greenhouse Gases from Municipal Solid Waste Treatment in China[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2015,28(7):1031-1038.]
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我国城市生活垃圾处理温室气体排放特征
李文涛1,2, 高庆先2, 王 立1, 马占云2, 刘俊蓉1,2, 李 崇3, 张艳艳4
1.甘肃农业大学林学院, 甘肃 兰州 730070 ;2.中国环境科学研究院气候中心, 北京 100012 ;3.辽宁沈阳气象局, 辽宁 沈阳 110000 ;4.河北廊坊气象局, 河北 廊坊 065000
摘要:
CH4和CO2是大气中主要的温室气体,研究我国城市生活垃圾处理过程中二者的排放情况,对制订温室气体减排政策和应对气候变化有着至关重要的意义. 利用IPCC(政府间气候变化专门委员会)提供的废弃物处理排放CH4和CO2的计算方法,对1979—2011年我国城市生活垃圾处理CH4和CO2排放量(不含港澳台数据)进行统计分析. 结果表明:①2011年我国城市生活垃圾人均清运量为0.46 t,比2000年增加了53.3%. ②1979—2011年,我国城市生活垃圾处理仍以填埋为主,焚烧和堆肥处理方式相对较少,但近年来焚烧处理量呈逐年增加趋势,其中2011年焚烧处理量是2001年的16.8倍. ③我国城市生活垃圾处理产生的CH4和CO2排放量均呈逐年增长趋势,至2011年,二者分别达到7 024.03×104 (以CO2当量计,下同)和706.22×104 t;其中,2011年CH4排放量是1990年的20.0倍,CO2排放量是2001年的16.8倍. ④城市生活垃圾产生的温室气体排放具有明显的地域特性,其中华东地区CH4和CO2排放总量高达2 570.98×104 t;西北地区最小,仅为482.3×104 t. 该差异与城市发展规模、人们生活习惯和城市化进程等影响因子紧密相关.
关键词:  城市生活垃圾  填埋  焚烧  CH4和CO2排放
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41175137);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA05020601)
Emission Characteristics of Greenhouse Gases from Municipal Solid Waste Treatment in China
LI Wentao1,2, GAO Qingxian2, WANG Li1, MA Zhanyun2, LIU Junrong1,2, LI Chong3, ZHANG Yanyan4
1.College of Forestry, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China ;2.Center for Climate Change Impact Research, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China ;3.Shenyang Meteorological Bureau of Liaoning Province, Shenyang 110000, China ;4.Langfang Meteorological Bureau of Hebei Province, Langfang 065000, China
Abstract:
Abstract: Methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment are major greenhouse gases listed in the Kyoto Protocol, significantly impact global climate change, and are important to consider in the formulation of policy for emission mitigation. The per capita amount of MSW (excluding data of Hongkong, Macao and Taiwan) collected and transported in China was 0.46 t/a in 2011. This represents an increase of 53.3% compared with 2000. Emissions from MSW treatment have become an important environmental problem in China. Analysis of the amounts of MSW collected and transported from 1979 to 2011, as well as the treatment measures including landfills and incineration, showed that landfilling is still the main process measure for MSW in China. The percentages of incineration and composting are relatively small. However, the incineration amount has increased yearly, with the amount of incineration in 2011 16.8 times that of 2001. The IPCC methodology was used for calculating CH4 and CO2 emissions from 1979 to 2011. The results showed that emissions of CH4 and CO2 in 2011 were 7024.03×104 t CO2-eq and 706.22×104 t, respectively. Emissions of CH4 in 2011 were 20.0 times that of 1990, while emissions of CO2 in 2011 were 16.8 times that of 2001. Regional CH4 and CO2 emissions results showed that the geographical character of emissions had close relationship with urbanization and economic development. The maximum emissions in East China reached 2570.98×104 t CO2-eq, while the minimum emissions located in the Northeast were 482.3×104 t CO2-eq.
Key words:  municipal solid waste (MSW)  landfill  incineration  emissions of CH4 and CO2