引用本文:支国瑞,杨俊超,张 涛,关 健,杜谨宏,薛志钢,孟 凡,等.我国北方农村生活燃煤情况调查、排放估算及政策启示[J].环境科学研究,2015,28(8):1179-1185.
ZHI Guorui,YANG Junchao,ZHANG Tao,GUAN Jian,DU Jinhong,XUE Zhigang,MENG Fan,et al.Rural Household Coal Use Survey, Emission Estimation and Policy Implications[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2015,28(8):1179-1185.]
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我国北方农村生活燃煤情况调查、排放估算及政策启示
支国瑞1, 杨俊超1, 张 涛2, 关 健2, 杜谨宏1, 薛志钢1, 孟 凡1
1.中国环境科学研究院, 环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室, 北京 100012 ;2.保定市环境保护监测站, 河北 保定 071000
摘要:
北方重灰霾频发时段与集中燃煤在冬季高度重合,引发了对农村散煤严重污染的担忧,但缺乏有力的统计数据支持. 2014年9月,在河北保定开展了当地农村生活能源使用情况入村调查,共获得5个村庄中543户家庭的能源使用数据. 结果表明:①保定农村地区散煤、电、液化气的使用覆盖率均很高,分别达到97%、100%和94%,反映了当前农村居民的能源消费更倾向于商业购置;而木柴和秸杆的使用覆盖率则较低,分别为13%和11%,表明传统的依赖于木柴和秸杆的能源方式已发生了根本改变. ②目前煤炭在农村能源结构中仍居主导地位,占近80%(其中散煤占76%,蜂窝煤占2%),其次为电力(10%)、液化气(5%),秸杆和木柴的比例(小于5%)均较低. ③调查估算,保定农村地区在2013年冬季采暖季(2013年11月─2014年3月)散煤用量超过500×104 t,高于《中国能源统计年鉴(2013)》中河北全省2012年农村散煤的用量(467×104 t),表明现有能源统计体系有待进一步完善. ④保定农村地区散煤的烟粉尘(即PM)和SO2排放量分别为5.4×104和11.2×104 t,均超过了《中国环境统计年报(2013)》中保定的工业废气和城镇生活领域相应的排放量(甚至超过2个领域排放量之和),表明农村散煤燃烧的排放问题确应引起特别关注.由于农村散煤燃烧排放高度较低,其单位排放对空气污染的贡献要远高于高架源排放,因此,建议国家和地方将农村能源结构调整置于当前能源结构调整计划的最优先领域,采取综合措施,消除农村散煤使用的污染排放,这可能是应对当前冬季灰霾问题的关键举措之一.
关键词:  农村  能源结构  生活燃煤  散煤  污染物排放  政策启示
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41173121,1, 21177118)
Rural Household Coal Use Survey, Emission Estimation and Policy Implications
ZHI Guorui1, YANG Junchao1, ZHANG Tao2, GUAN Jian2, DU Jinhong1, XUE Zhigang1, MENG Fan1
1.State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China ;2.Baoding Monitoring Center for Environmental Protection, Baoding 071000, China
Abstract:
Abstract: The frequent occurrence of heavy haze coinciding with the intensive coal-burning winter season in northern China has raised concerns about the pollution contribution of rural raw coal burning. However, relevant on-site information is not available. A survey of rural household energy use was carried out in Baoding, a city in North China, in September 2014. In total, 543 households from five villages were investigated. Analysis of the data points to a few important findings. First, raw coal, electricity, and gas were used by 97%, 100%, and 94% of rural families, respectively, whereas families using firewood and farm stalks were just 13% and 11%, respectively, of the total questioned families. This reflects a profound change in energy use by rural households from traditional dependence on wood and stalks to commercial energy for household purposes. Second, coal accounted for nearly 80% of total household energy (raw coal 76% and coal briquettes 2%), followed by electricity (10%) and LPG (5%); farm stalks and firewood both accounted for less than 5%. Third, raw coal consumption in the 2013 heating season (November 2013 to March 2014) in Baoding was found to be higher than 500×104 t, which exceeded the value of rural raw coal for the entire Hebei province given in the China Energy Statistical Yearbook 2013 (2012 energy data, 467×104 t), suggesting a need to improve the existing statistical system. Finally, the smoke-dust (PM) and SO2 emissions from rural raw coal burning calculated in this study were 5.4×104 and 11.2×104 t, respectively, both higher than the emissions from the industrial sector and urban residential sector (higher than even the sum of the two sectors) for Baoding reported in the 2013 Annual Statistic Report on Environment in China, indicating the need for special attention to rural raw coal emissions. Given the lower emission height and higher pollution intensity of household raw coal burning as compared to elevated emission sources, the top priority for the current energy restructuring program is proposed to be rural areas both nationally and locally. Together with some integrated measures to curb raw coal-caused air pollution, this may be a key step to solve the winter haze problems.
Key words:  rural area  energy structure  household coal  raw coal  pollutant emissions  policy implication