引用本文:孟 伟,范俊韬,张 远.流域水生态系统健康与生态文明建设[J].环境科学研究,2015,28(10):1495-1500.
MENG Wei,FAN Juntao,ZHANG Yuan.Freshwater Ecosystem Health and Ecological Civilization Construction at the Watershed Scale[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2015,28(10):1495-1500.]
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流域水生态系统健康与生态文明建设
孟 伟1, 范俊韬1,2, 张 远1
1.中国环境科学研究院, 环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室, 北京 100012 ;2.北京师范大学水科学研究院, 北京 100875
摘要:
健康的流域水生态系统是保障流域经济社会可持续发展的基础,解决我国严峻的流域水生态系统健康问题迫切需要开展以流域为基本单元的生态文明建设. 针对我国流域水生态系统健康现状,确立了流域生态文明的概念和内涵,提出了流域生态文明建设的基本框架和主要任务. 以保障流域自然生态系统的完整性、流域经济社会系统发展的可持续性、人居环境的生态性为内涵,构建流域水生态-经济社会复合生态系统的动态平衡是流域生态文明建设的基本框架. 流域生态文明建设的主要任务:①构建以水生态系统健康为目标的流域分区管理模式,优化国土空间开发;②健全流域的水环境质量基准和标准体系,科学确定生态系统保护阈值;③建立以流域生态承载力为约束的污染物总量控制技术,优化产业结构与布局;④以保障流域环境流量为前提,实现水资源生态利用;⑤加强人居环境生态建设,实现流域城市生态化发展;⑥加强生态制度建设,构建流域生态文明建设长效机制.该研究成果可以为实现流域人与自然和谐发展提供理论指导.
关键词:  流域管理  水生态系统健康  生态文明  水生态功能区
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2012ZX07501-001,4ZX07510-001-01-05)
Freshwater Ecosystem Health and Ecological Civilization Construction at the Watershed Scale
MENG Wei1, FAN Juntao1,2, ZHANG Yuan1
1.State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China ;2.College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
Abstract:
Abstract: A healthy watershed aquatic ecosystem is the foundation of sustainable development of the watershed economy and society. It is urgent to construct an ecological civilization at the watershed scale so as to solve the severe health problems of the watershed ecosystem in China. In this study, the concept and connotations of the ecological civilization at the watershed scale were established, and the basic framework of ecological civilization at the watershed scale was proposed, which is to establish the dynamic equilibrium of the watersheds economic-social-aquatic complex ecosystem with the connotations of protecting the integrity of natural ecosystems, sustainable development of economic and social systems of the watershed, and ecological characteristics of human living environment. Six major tasks were proposed:1) establishing healthy aquatic ecosystems by the watershed ecological region management mode to optimize land space exploitation; 2) improving freshwater environmental quality benchmarks and the standards system for watersheds to determine the scientific threshold for ecosystem protection; 3) establishing the pollutant total amount control technology constraints by the ecological carrying capacity of the watershed to optimize the industrial structure and distribution; 4) securing the environmental flow of the watershed as a precondition to achieving ecological use of water resources; 5) strengthening the ecological construction of the human living environment to achieve urban ecological development of the watershed; and, 6) strengthening ecological institution construction to build a long-term mechanism for watershed ecological civilization. The present study provides theoretical guidance for the harmonious development of humans and nature in the watershed.
Key words:  watershed management  aquatic ecosystem health  ecological civilization  freshwater ecosystem function region