引用本文:毛敏娟,杨续超.霾与城市化发展的关系[J].环境科学研究,2015,28(12):1823-1832.
MAO Minjuan,YANG Xuchao.The Relationship between Haze Weather and Urbanization[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2015,28(12):1823-1832.]
【打印本页】   【HTML】   【下载PDF全文】   查看/发表评论  【EndNote】   【RefMan】   【BibTex】
←前一篇|后一篇→ 过刊浏览    高级检索
本文已被:浏览 1126次   下载 1262 本文二维码信息
码上扫一扫!
分享到: 微信 更多
霾与城市化发展的关系
毛敏娟1, 杨续超2
1.浙江省气象科学研究所, 浙江 杭州 310008 ;2.浙江大学海洋学院, 浙江 杭州 310058
摘要:
利用遥感夜间灯光数据,结合地面观测资料,以浙江省为例,研究了城市发展与气候条件、大气污染物质量浓度及霾天气之间的关系. 结果表明:当前粗放型城市发展引起的干岛、热岛、低湿、低能见度等气候效应,使1980—2010年杭州年均气温的线性增长率达到0.70 ℃/10 a、风速下降率为0.11 m/(s·10 a)、能见度下降率为1.40 km/10 a,分别高于临安的0.41 ℃/10 a、0.06 m/(s·10 a)、0.92 km/10 a. 城市发展改变大气污染物组成,对于城市化水平较高的杭州,大气中ρ(PM2.5)/ρ(PM10)的月均值介于0.52~0.69之间,明显高于临安的0.45~0.59,NO2、SO2等二次气溶胶前体物的质量浓度也明显高于临安. 浙江省大气中ρ(NO2)较ρ(SO2)高,其中临安大气中ρ(NO2)年均值较ρ(SO2)高出5.8 μg/m3,杭州的则高出21.0 μg/m3,同时杭州大气中ρ(NO2)与ρ(SO2)年均值的比值(1.70)也高于临安(1.57). 城市发展引起的气候效应及大气污染物组成变化可以解释浙江省霾日数与夜间灯光在空间分布和年代际长期变化趋势上的高度一致性. 在空间上,城市发展快、夜间灯光密集的浙北、浙江沿海、金衢盆地也是霾天气高发地区,而1960—2010年年霾日数出现的2个大跃变与改革开放及2000年后城市快速发展阶段相吻合,年霾日数与夜间灯光总灰度值之间的相关系数达到0.99. 研究显示,粗放型城市化发展是当前浙江省霾污染加剧的根本原因.
关键词:  城市发展  夜间灯光    浙江省
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(41475134);国家科技支撑计划项目(2014BAC16B05);浙江省公益性社会发展重点项目(2014C23004)
The Relationship between Haze Weather and Urbanization
MAO Minjuan1, YANG Xuchao2
1.Zhejiang Institute of Meteorology Science, Hangzhou 310008, China ;2.Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
Abstract:
Abstract: Remote sensing nighttime light combined with surface observational data was used to investigate the influences of urbanization on climatic conditions, air pollutant concentrations and haze formation. The results showed the obvious urban climate effects of “dry” and “heat” island, low atmospheric humidity and low visibility. From 1980-2010, the annual average temperature in Hangzhou increased 0.70 ℃/10 a, the average wind speed decreased 0.11 m/(s·10 a) and the visibility rate decreased 1.40 km/10 a. As compared with Lin'an, Hangzhou's values were higher by 0.41 ℃/10 a, 0.06 m/(s·10 a) and 0.92 km/10 a over the same period. Urbanization also changed the air pollutant composition. The monthly mean PM2.5/PM10 was 0.52-0.69 in Hangzhou, which was much than the values in Lin'an (0.45-0.59). Additionally, the concentrations of precursors of secondary aerosols such as NO2 and SO2 in Hangzhou were also higher than those in Lin'an. The annual mean concentration of NO2 was higher than that of SO2 in Zhejiang Province. In Lin'an, it was 5.8 μg/m3 higher, while it was 21.0 μg/m3 higher in Hangzhou City. Also, the ratio of NO2 to SO2 concentration in Hangzhou City (1.70) was higher than that in Lin'an County (1.57). Under the situation of inefficient model of economic growth, the effects of urbanization on climate and pollutants promoting haze formation explain the agreement between annual haze days and nighttime light on the spatial distribution and decadal variation trend in Zhejiang Province. Serious haze pollution mostly occurs in the northern part and the eastern coast of Zhejiang Province, and the Jinqu Basin region where urban development is fast and nighttime light is intensive. Furthermore, two dramatic changes in number of annual haze days corresponded to the reform and opening-up as well as the intensification of urbanization after 2000. A close relationship between annual haze days and total grey value of nighttime light was found; the correlation coefficient reached 0.99, which is higher than that of GDP, non-agricultural population and other factors. The study shows that extensive urban development is the primacy cause of more serious air pollution in Zhejiang Province.
Key words:  urban development  nighttime light  haze  Zhejiang Province