引用本文:常军军,吴苏青,梁康,王飞华,梁威,等.复合垂直流人工湿地微生物特征对典型污水的响应差异[J].环境科学研究,2016,29(8):1200-1206.
CHANG Junjun,WU Suqing,LIANG Kang,WANG Feihua,LIANG Wei,et al.Responses of Microbial Features in Integrated Vertical-Flow Constructed Wetlands (IVCWs) for Treatment of Two Types of Representative Wastewater[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2016,29(8):1200-1206.]
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复合垂直流人工湿地微生物特征对典型污水的响应差异
常军军1,2, 吴苏青1,3, 梁 康1,4, 王飞华1, 梁 威1
1.中国科学院水生生物研究所, 淡水生态与生物技术国家重点实验室, 湖北 武汉 430072 ;2.云南大学生态学与环境学院, 云南 昆明 650091 ;3.江西省环境科学研究院, 江西 南昌 330029 ;4.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
摘要:
污水性质是影响人工湿地微生物特征的重要因子,而微生物对人工湿地污染物净化功能的发挥至关重要. 运用两组IVCW(复合垂直流人工湿地)分别处理模拟生活污水和污水处理厂尾水,比较研究两组系统下行流、上行流池的基质酶活性及硝化反硝化强度,并通过脂肪酸甲酯图谱分析系统中的微生物群落结构,以解析人工湿地微生物特征对两种污水的响应差异. 结果表明:处理生活污水的IVCW下行流池中脱氢酶、过氧化氢酶、脲酶及硝酸盐还原酶活性均显著高于其他单元,四者平均值分别为其他单元的2.8~4.6、7.9~10.3、19.3~41.7和4.5~10.8倍. 处理生活污水IVCW基质的硝化强度是尾水处理系统对应单元的1.4~5.3倍(下行流)和1.3~3.9倍(上行流),而两组IVCW对应单元基质的反硝化强度之间无显著差异. IVCW下行流池中特征脂肪酸比值及微生物群落结构受污水类型的影响较小,均以厌氧细菌和革兰氏阳性菌为优势菌;上行流池微生物群落结构则受到污水类型的一定影响,真菌的相对丰度较高. 两种污水对IVCW基质酶活性和硝化强度的影响高于对反硝化强度和微生物群落结构的影响.
关键词:  复合垂直流人工湿地(IVCW)  酶活性  硝化反硝化强度  特征脂肪酸比值  微生物群落结构
DOI:
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基金项目:水利部科技推广计划项目(TG1520);江苏省科技厅项目(BK20130430);云南省应用基础研究计划青年项目(2013FD006)
Responses of Microbial Features in Integrated Vertical-Flow Constructed Wetlands (IVCWs) for Treatment of Two Types of Representative Wastewater
CHANG Junjun1,2, WU Suqing1,3, LIANG Kang1,4, WANG Feihua1, LIANG Wei1
1.State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, China ;2.School of Ecology and Environmental Science, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China ;3.Jiangxi Academy of Environmental Sciences, Nanchang 330029, China ;4.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Abstract:
Abstract: Wastewater quality is one of the important influencing factors for microbial features in constructed wetlands (CW), and microorganisms play a key role in the pollutant removal performance of CW. Two groups of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands (IVCWs) were applied to treat synthetic domestic wastewater (DW)and tail water (TW)from a sewage treatment plant. Enzyme activities, nitrification and denitrification rates,together with microbial community structure in the IVCWs, were comparatively investigated to reveal the response distinctions of microbial features to the two types of wastewater. The results showed that the activities of dehydrogenase, catalase, urease and nitrate reductase in the down-flow chamber fed with DW were all significantly higher than those in other chambers, with mean values of 2.8-4.6, 7.9-10.3,9.3-41.7 and 4.5-10.8 times higher than the others. The nitrification rates in the down-flow and up-flow chamber of IVCWs treating DW were 3.8 and 3.0 times higher than those in the system fed with TW, respectively.No significant differences were detected for the denitrification rates in corresponding chamber of IVCWs treating the two types of wastewater. Relatively less influence of wastewater type on signature fatty acids and microbial community structure in the down-flow chambers of IVCWs was found, both with anaerobic and gram-positive bacteria dominantly presented. Fatty acids compositions in up-flow chambers were affected by the wastewater type to some extent, and the relative abundance of fungi was higher. The effect of wastewater type on enzyme activities and nitrification rate was greater than those on denitrification rate and microbial compositions in the IVCWs.
Key words:  integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands (IVCWs)  enzyme activities  nitrification and denitrification rates  ratios of signature fatty acids  microbial community structure