引用本文:赵娟,黄蓓佳,柴径阳,王翔宇,赵凤,吴璐超,等.多晶硅光伏组件生产可持续性评价[J].环境科学研究,2016,29(10):1554-1559.
ZHAO Juan,HUANG Beijia,CHAI Jingyang,WANG Xiangyu,ZHAO Feng,WU Luchao,et al.Sustainability Assessment of China′s Multi-Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Modules Production[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2016,29(10):1554-1559.]
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多晶硅光伏组件生产可持续性评价
赵 娟1,2, 黄蓓佳1,2, 柴径阳1,2, 王翔宇1,2, 赵 凤1,2, 吴璐超3
1.上海理工大学环境与建筑学院, 上海 200093 ;2.上海理工大学环境与低碳科学研究中心, 上海 200093 ;3.华东理工大学资源与环境工程学院, 上海 200237
摘要:
分别采用了全生命周期评价软件、全生命周期成本法、社会性指数评价法,对我国多晶硅光伏组件生产阶段的环境影响、经济性和社会性影响进行了定量评估.结果表明:多晶硅生产、多晶硅电池片生产、电池组装3个阶段的环境影响相对较大,其中多晶硅生产阶段对气候变化的贡献率在50%以上.经济成本分析显示,原料和劳动力的成本占总成本的70%以上.多晶硅电池片生产阶段的成本在光伏组件生产过程的5个阶段中所占的比重最大.社会性影响分析结果显示,在光伏组件生产中,劳动岗位增加的贡献指数值为0.72,劳动力就业贡献较大,而生产能力提高的贡献指数值仅为0.18,显示生产能力提高的贡献较小.研究显示,为提高多晶硅光伏组件的可持续性,在生产过程中需寻找清洁能源、寻找环保替代材料以降低环境影响;积极鼓励支持企业进行技术研发创新,着力提高电池转换效率以降低生产成本;通过市场良性竞争提高多晶硅光伏行业的社会贡献.
关键词:  多晶硅光伏组件  环境效应  经济性  社会性影响
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(71403170)
Sustainability Assessment of China′s Multi-Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Modules Production
ZHAO Juan1,2, HUANG Beijia1,2, CHAI Jingyang1,2, WANG Xiangyu1,2, ZHAO Feng1,2, WU Luchao3
1.School of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China ;2.Environment and Low-Carbon Research Center, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China ;3.School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China
Abstract:
Abstract: In order to meet the goals of GHG reduction and sustainability in industry, it is necessary to promote strategies to reduce GHG emissions without compromising other economic, environmental and social priorities. Considering that renewable energy technologies usually have considerable environmental influences and uncertain economic and social impacts during the production stages, the environmental, economic and social impacts of China′s mc-Si(mc-Si) PV modules production stages were quantitatively assessed in the present study. The environmental impact was evaluated by applying life cycle assessment through the software GaBi 6. The economic analysis was conducted based on life cycle cost, while the social impact analysis was carried out by applying social index evaluation. The results showed that the environmental impacts of mc-Si production, mc-Si cell production and modules assembly were larger than the other two stages′ impacts. Pollutants causing climate change impact mainly came from the mc-Si production stage, accounting for more than 50% of the total climate change impacts. Economic analysis revealed that the main cost of mc-Si module production was from raw materials and labor, which accounted for more than 70% of the total costs. The production of mc-Si PV cells had the highest cost among the five processes. As for the social impact, the results showed that the employment contribution indicator was 0.72, indicating that mc-Si PV modules production had prominent contribution to employment. The production capacity increase indicator was merely 0.18, illustrating that the modules production had limited contribution of production capacity improvement. Based on the previous analysis, several primary suggestions were developed to improve the sustainable development of mc-Si PV modules, to improve energy structure and seek for environmentally friendly materials to reduce environmental impact;encourage enterprises to innovate high efficiency technologies to reduce production costs;and shift policy subsidy to market healthy competition to enhance social contribution of mc-Si PV industry.
Key words:  mc-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules  environmental effect  economic  social impact