引用本文:张瑞,刘操,孙德智,齐飞,等.北京地区再生水补给型河湖水质改善工程案例分析与问题诊断[J].环境科学研究,2016,29(12):1872-1881.
ZHANG Rui,LIU Cao,SUN Dezhi,QI Fei,et al.Water Quality Improvement Engineering for Urban Rivers and Lakes Supplied by Reclaimed Water in Beijing:Case Analysis and Problem Diagnosis[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2016,29(12):1872-1881.]
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北京地区再生水补给型河湖水质改善工程案例分析与问题诊断
张 瑞1,2, 刘 操3, 孙德智1,2, 齐 飞1,2
1.北京林业大学环境科学与工程学院, 北京 100086 ;2.水体污染源控制技术北京市重点实验室, 北京 100086 ;3.北京市水科学技术研究院, 北京 100048
摘要:
由于北京地区水资源严重紧缺,再生水作为补给城市河湖景观水体的重要水源,用量逐年加大,随之带来的水环境问题也引起关注,往往需要采用适宜的技术和工程改善水质.通过对北京城市部分再生水补给型河湖现有水质改善工程的调研,分析与评估北京市再生水补给城市河湖景观水体生态修复技术工程建设与运行效果,并与国内外河流、湖泊生态修复经典案例进行了对比分析.结果表明,修复工程受运行时间、季节及后续维护的影响,其运行效果不稳定且逐渐下降.受汛期降水充沛及水量人为调控影响,城市河湖6—9月水质较好;水质恶化时ρ(CODCr)为40~50 mg/L,ρ(NH3-N)为2~5 mg/L,ρ(TN)为10~15 mg/L,ρ(TP)为0.4~1.0 mg/L.水力流动循环、循环过滤、化学除藻和生物调控等单项及相应组合技术是当前北京市再生水补给型河湖水质改善的主要手段.对于水质要求较高的再生水补给型河湖,可以考虑辅膜生物反应器或生物滤池等旁路生化组合工艺.与国外的整流域近自然水生态系统修复相比,我国河湖水生态修复更注重区域水质的改善,以控制水体富营养化为主;对流域生态系统修复的整体性与长效性关注不够,缺乏与园林景观的融合.为更好地发挥河湖水体生态修复工程效果,未来应在政策法规、协调管理及投融资机制等方面加大投入力度.
关键词:  再生水  城市河湖  富营养化  水质净化  生态修复
DOI:
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基金项目:北京市科技计划项目(Z151100002115008)
Water Quality Improvement Engineering for Urban Rivers and Lakes Supplied by Reclaimed Water in Beijing:Case Analysis and Problem Diagnosis
ZHANG Rui1,2, LIU Cao3, SUN Dezhi1,2, QI Fei1,2
1.College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100086, China ;2.Beijing Key Laboratory for Source Control Technology of Water Pollution, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100086, China ;3.Beijing Water Science Technology Institute, Beijing 100048, China
Abstract:
Abstract: Due to severe shortages of water resources in Beijing, reclaimed water has been used as an important water source and has been a good supplement for the urban river and lake landscapes. The amount of reclaimed water has increased largely every year, and the presence of contaminants in the reclaimed water has made water quality problems much more serious. It is particularly important to use appropriate engineering techniques to improve water quality of urban rivers and lakes supplied by reclaimed water. Through a series of typical cases about the water quality development of urban rivers and lakes, we analyzed and evaluated the effects of construction and operation of water ecological restoration in urban rivers and lakes supplied by reclaimed water. Subsequently, the characteristics of famous river and lake ecological restoration cases around the world were compared and analyzed. The engineering effects of ecological restoration were unstable and declined gradually, and were affected by run time, seasons and follow-up maintenance. Influenced by abundant precipitation and artificial water regulation in the flood season, the water quality of urban rivers and lakes was better in June to September. As water quality deteriorated, ρ(CODCr) was 40-50 mg/L, ρ(NH3-N) was 2-5 mg/L, ρ(TN) was 10-15 mg/L, and ρ(TP) was 0.4-1.0 mg/L. The single and combined engineering such as hydraulic circulating, recirculation filtration, chemical-algaecide and biomanipulation are currently used widely and effectively on the development of water quality of urban rivers and lakes that were supplied by reclaimed water in Beijing. When the water quality requirements are strict, some bypass combination biochemical processes such as membrane bioreactor(MBR) and biofilter can be employed for advanced treatment.Compared with the near-natural water ecosystem restoration in the whole watershed abroad, water ecosystem restoration in China has paid more attention to the improvement of the regional water quality, aiming at reducing eutrophication. Also, there are some shortages in the integrity and persistence of watershed ecosystem restoration and the integration of landscapes. In the future, in order to achieve better engineering effects of ecological restoration, investment should be increased in policies and regulations, coordinated management, financing mechanisms, and so on.
Key words:  reclaimed water  urban rivers and lakes  eutrophication  water purification  ecological restoration