引用本文:周海军,刘涛,都达古拉,等.包头市大气污染特征及其影响因素[J].环境科学研究,2017,30(2):202-213.
ZHOU Haijun,LIU Tao,Dudagula,et al.Characteristics of Atmospheric Pollutants and Influencing Factors in Baotou[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2017,30(2):202-213.]
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包头市大气污染特征及其影响因素
周海军1,2, 刘 涛1, 都达古拉1, 任丽敏1, 贺忠翔1, 卢振国4, 何 江2,3
1.内蒙古自治区环境监测中心站, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010011 ;2.内蒙古大学生命科学学院, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010021 ;3.内蒙古大学环境与资源学院, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 010021 ;4.包头市环境监测站, 内蒙古 包头 014010
摘要:
为了解包头市大气污染特征,利用包头市2014年ρ(PM10)、ρ(PM2.5)、ρ(SO2)、ρ(NO2)、ρ(CO)和ρ(O3)环境空气自动监测数据,结合气象参数,分析了包头市大气污染特征及其影响因素. 结果表明:①包头市春季大气污染以PM10为主,夏季以O3为主,秋冬两季PM10和PM2.5均有不同程度污染. ②ρ(PM10)、ρ(PM2.5)、ρ(SO2)、ρ(NO2)的24 h平均值和ρ(O3)日最大8 h平均值分别有153、76、10、6和3 d超出GB 3095—2012《环境空气质量标准》二级标准限值,ρ(CO)24 h平均值全年达标. ρ(PM10)、ρ(PM2.5)和ρ(NO2)年均值分别为GB 3095—2012二级标准限值的2.2、1.6和1.2倍,ρ(SO2)年均值达标. ③PM2.5/PM10(质量浓度比)四季分布为冬季(0.45)>秋季(0.39)>夏季(0.36)>春季(0.27),年均值为0.37,粗颗粒污染特征明显. ④SO2/NO2(质量浓度比)四季分布为冬季(1.76)>春季(1.15)>秋季(0.82)>夏季(0.75),年均值为1.12,并且取暖季明显高于非取暖季,说明冬季燃煤取暖对包头市空气质量有重要影响. ⑤包头市的严重污染主要有沙尘型和煤烟型2种. ⑥系统聚类分析表明,扬尘引起的PM10对包头市环境空气质量有重要的影响,以SO2和CO为排放特征的燃煤对PM2.5有较大的贡献.
关键词:  空气质量  颗粒物  气态污染物  气象参数  影响因素
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家环境保护公益性行业科研专项(201509020);内蒙古自治区研究生科研创新项目(140202020101314)
Characteristics of Atmospheric Pollutants and Influencing Factors in Baotou
ZHOU Haijun1,2, LIU Tao1, Dudagula1, REN Limin1, HE Zhongxiang1, LU Zhenguo4, HE Jiang2,3
1.Environmental Monitoring Center of Inner Mongolia, Hohhot 010011, China ;2.College of Life Sciences,Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021, China ;3.College of Environment and Resources, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021, China ;4.Environmental Monitoring Station of Baotou, Baotou 014010, China
Abstract:
Abstract:In order to understand characteristics of atmospheric pollutants in Baotou city,the contents of PM10,PM2.5,SO2,NO2,CO and O3,as well as the influencing factors were analyzed from data from the automatic air quality monitoring stations. The results showed that:(1)PM10 pollution mainly occurred in spring,while O3 pollution mainly occurred in summer. PM10 and PM2.5 caused different extents of pollution in autumn and winter.(2)For concentrations of PM10,PM2.5,SO2,NO2 and O3,there were 153, 76, 10, 6 and 3 days exceeding the Grade II standard of China′s National Ambient Air Quality Standard(GB 3095-2012),respectively,while the concentrations of CO were all lower than the standard. The annual concentrations of PM10,PM2.5 and NO2 were 2.2 , 1.6 and 1.2 times the Grade II standard of GB 3095-2012,respectively,while the annual concentration of SO2 was lower than the standard.(3)The PM2.5/PM10 ratio in terms of the four seasons followed the order:winter(0.45)> fall(0.39)> summer(0.36)> spring(0.27),with the annual average ratio of 0.37,indicating more coarse particle pollution than fine.(4)The SO2/NO2 ratio in terms of the four seasons followed the order:winter(1.76)> autumn(1.15)> spring(0.82)> summer(0.75),with the annual average ratio of 1.12. The ratio of heating season was significantly higher than that of non-heating season,and it showed that the coal combustion in the winter for heating contributed to air quality as a decisive role.(5)There were two main types of severe pollution in Baotou,including the type of dust and a type of soot.(6)Cluster analysis demonstrated that PM10 caused by dust event had important influence on the air quality in Baotou city,while coal combustion characterized by SO2 and CO pollution had greater contributions to PM2.5.
Key words:  air quality  particulate matter  atmospheric pollutant  meteorological condition  impact