引用本文:钟爱文,宋鑫,张静,何亮,易春龙,倪乐意,曹特,等.2014年武汉东湖水生植物多样性及其分布特征[J].环境科学研究,2017,30(3):398-405.
ZHONG Aiwen,SONG Xin,ZHANG Jing,HE Liang,YI Chunlong,NI Leyi,CAO Te,et al.Diversity and Distribution of Aquatic Plants in Lake Donghu in Wuhan in 2014[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2017,30(3):398-405.]
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2014年武汉东湖水生植物多样性及其分布特征
钟爱文1,2, 宋 鑫2, 张 静2,3, 何 亮2,4, 易春龙2, 倪乐意2, 曹 特2
1.江西省·中国科学院庐山植物园, 江西 庐山 332900 ;2.中国科学院水生生物研究所, 淡水生态与生物技术国家重点实验室, 湖北 武汉 430072 ;3.武汉市环境保护科学研究院, 湖北 武汉 430015 ;4.南昌大学鄱阳湖环境与资源教育部重点实验室, 江西 南昌 330031
摘要:
全球众多湖泊发生富营养化并造成诸多环境问题,为了解武汉东湖数十年富营养化历程中水生植物多样性和分布情况,2014年对武汉东湖的4个主要湖区沿岸带的水生植物进行了调查,包括郭郑湖、汤林湖、团湖和后湖4个湖区,总共设置20个采样点,每个采样点设3个样方(沿岸带挺水植被,1 m×1 m;沉水植物,0.2 m×0.2 m).结果表明:东湖现存水生植物共计16科17属19种,其中狭叶香蒲、莲和菱是优势种,挺水植物、沉水植物、浮叶植物和漂浮植物分别为10、6、2和1种;东湖主要水生植物群落类型有7种,除了挺水植物群丛外,浮叶植物和沉水植物的群丛都是单优结构,植物群落分布面积为0.13 km2,仅占东湖总面积的0.48%.与历史数据对比发现,自20世纪50年代以来,东湖水生植物的多样性指数降低、分布极度萎缩,东湖大部分水生植物群落结构趋于单优化.研究显示,造成东湖植被衰退的主要原因是湖泊的逐渐富营养化、草食性鱼类的过度放养和生境的破坏.
关键词:  水生植物  武汉东湖  植物多样性  富营养化
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:江西省自然科学基金项目(20151BAB204013);国家自然科学基金项目(31560149);淡水生态与生物技术国家重点实验室课题(2016FB208)[ZK)]
Diversity and Distribution of Aquatic Plants in Lake Donghu in Wuhan in 2014
ZHONG Aiwen1,2, SONG Xin2, ZHANG Jing2,3, HE Liang2,4, YI Chunlong2, NI Leyi2, CAO Te2
1.Lushan Botanical Garden, Jiangxi Province & the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lushan 332900, China ;2.[ZK(]State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, China[ZK)] ;3.Wuhan Environmental Protection Sciences Research Institute, Wuhan 430015, China ;4.[ZK(]Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Environment and Resource Utilization, Ministry of Education, School of Resources, Environmental & Chemical Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China[ZK)]
Abstract:
Abstract:Eutrophication of shallow lakes occurs worldwide and causes many environmental problems.To explore the species diversity and distribution of aquatic plants in Lake Donghu,which has undergone serious eutrophication over the past several decades,field surveys on aquatic plants were carried out on 1 m × 1 m areas in the littoral zone and 0.2 m × 0.2 m areas in the water with three replicates in 20 sites along the littoral zones in four parts(Guozheng Lake,Tanglin Lake,Tuan Lake and Hou Lake)of the lake in 2014.The results showed that there were 19 aquatic plant species in 17 genera and 16 families in Lake Donghu,with 10,6,2 and 1 of them belonging to emergent,submersed,floating-leaved and freely-floating life style with their dominant species,Typha angustifolia,Nelumbo nucifera and Trapa bispinosa,respectively.The aquatic vegetation could be divided into 7 communities,with submerged and floating-leaved communities occupied by monodominant plant species and emergent communities composed of mixed plant species.The aquatic vegetation area was 0.13 km2,and covered only 0.48% of the lake surface.Compared with the data in previous studies,the plant species diversity declined,vegetation area dropped dramatically and plant communities tended to be mono-dominant since the 1950s.Serious eutrophication,heavy stock of herbivorous fishes and destruction of habitats were considered as the potential causes.
Key words:  aquatic plants  Lake Donghu in Wuhan  plant diversity  eutrophication