引用本文:杨昆,王桂林,杨扬,罗毅,等.昆明市不透水表面扩张与PM2.5质量浓度变化相关性分析[J].环境科学研究,2017,30(4):499-509.
YANG Kun,WANG Guilin,YANG Yang,LUO Yi,et al.Association Between Impervious Surface and PM2.5 Concentrations in Kunming,China[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2017,30(4):499-509.]
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昆明市不透水表面扩张与PM2.5质量浓度变化相关性分析
杨 昆1,2, 王桂林2,3, 杨 扬2,3, 罗 毅1,2
1.云南师范大学信息学院, 云南 昆明 650500 ;2.云南师范大学西部资源环境地理信息技术教育部工程研究中心, 云南 昆明 650500 ;3.云南师范大学旅游与地理科学学院, 云南 昆明 650500
摘要:
为分析城市化进程导致的城市生态环境问题,采用不透水表面覆盖率(impervious surface coverage,ISC)作为宏观地理指标表征昆明市城市化水平,以ρ(PM2.5)反映城市化进程带来的大气环境问题,基于不同空间尺度和空间数理统计研究了ISC与ρ(PM2.5)的对应关系.结果表明:2000—2015年,昆明ISC从9.36%增至16.37%,ρ(PM2.5)年均值从17.12 μg/m3增至28.63 μg/m3,并且二者空间分布总体一致.从乡镇尺度分析,乡镇ρ(PM2.5)和ISC具有显著空间自相关性,二者2015年Moran′s I指数分别为0.58和0.29(P<0.001),具有显著正相关性(R2=0.803,P<0.001).当乡镇ISC>5%时,有58.14%(25/43)的乡镇已污染〔ρ(PM2.5)>25 μg/m3〕;当乡镇ISC>10%时,有71.43%(25/35)的乡镇已污染;当乡镇ISC>25%时,有100%(26/26)的乡镇处于污染状态;但当乡镇ISC<5%时,所有乡镇的ρ(PM2.5)都低于25 μg/m3.从站点尺度分析,所有站点旱季比雨季污染严重;主城区站点(ISC高)比城郊区站点(ISC低)污染严重,其中前者季节变化为冬天>春天>秋天>夏天,后者为春天>冬天>夏天>秋天;站点缓冲区ISC与ρ(PM2.5)的相关性显著(R2=0.893,P<0.001).研究显示,未来中国新型城市化建设中应当考虑城市不透水表面比例和空间分布,保证新型城市拥有足够的绿色空间,建设生态城市.
关键词:  不透水表面覆盖率  PM2.5污染  城市化  环境效应
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家高技术研究发展计划(863)项目(2012AA121402);高等学校博士学科点专项科研基金项目(20115303110002);国家自然科学基金项目(41561086);科研创新基金(yjs201580)
Association Between Impervious Surface and PM2.5 Concentrations in Kunming,China
YANG Kun1,2, WANG Guilin2,3, YANG Yang2,3, LUO Yi1,2
1.School of Information Science and Technology, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650500, China ;2.Engineering Research Center of GIS Technology in Western China of Ministry of Education, Kunming 650500, China ;3.School of Tourism and Geographic Sciences, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650500, China
Abstract:
Abstract:In order to understand the effects of urbanization on the Earth′s ecosystem,the impervious surface coverage(ISC)has been recognized as a geographical indicator to reflect the intensity of human development activities with rapid urbanization.The PM2.5 pollution is used to indicate air quality.The relationship between ISC and PM2.5 pollution was explored with two levels based on spatial statistics.From 2000 to 2015,the ISC in Kunming increased from 9.36% to 16.37%,while the PM2.5 concentration increased from 17.12 μg/m3 to 28.63 μg/m3.The spatial distribution of the PM2.5 aggravation was consistent with the impervious surface expansion in Kunming.The growth of ISC in the southeast(11.56 to 25.78%)was greater than that in the northwest(2.12 to 5.15%),and the increase of PM2.5 concentration in the southeast(21.37 to 36.75 μg/m3)was also greater than that in the northwest(4.56 to 10.65 μg/m3).The relationship between ISC and PM2.5 concentrations was explored at the town level and the station level.The impervious surface and the PM2.5 pollution in Kunming both had significant spatial autocorrelation between the towns with Moran′s Index of 0.29 and 0.58(P<0.001),respectively.For towns′ ISC greater than 5%:58.14%(25/43)of the towns were degraded;for ISC > 10%:71.43%(25/35)of the towns were degraded;for ISC > 25%:100%(26/26)of the towns were degraded.In contrast,for towns with ISC < 5%:none of the towns were degraded.With the least square method,the results showed a good fitting(R2=0.803,P<0.001)between the towns′ ISC and PM2.5 concentrations.Moreover,at the station level,the relationship between ISC of the stations′ buffer(2000 m)and PM2.5 concentrations were explored(R2=0.893,P<0.001)with Pearson′s Correlation,indicating ISC has strong association with PM2.5 concentration.Thus,the proportion and spatial distribution of impervious surface should be considered in National New-Type Urbanization Development,making cities surrounded by enough green belt and water areas.
Key words:  impervious surface coverage  PM2.5 pollution  urbanization  environmental effect