引用本文:刘静,刘录三,郑丙辉.入海河口区水环境管理问题与对策[J].环境科学研究,2017,30(5):645-653.
LIU Jing,LIU Lusan,ZHENG Binghui.Problems and Countermeasures of Water Environmental Management in Estuaries[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2017,30(5):645-653.]
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入海河口区水环境管理问题与对策
刘 静1,2, 刘录三1,2, 郑丙辉1,2
1.中国环境科学研究院, 环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室, 北京 100012 ;2.中国环境科学研究院, 国家环境保护河口与海岸带环境重点实验室, 北京 100012
摘要:
入海河口(简称“河口”)既是河流的终端又是海洋的起点,水动力特征、水质特征和水生态特征均既不同于近岸海域也不同于河流,对近岸海域水环境质量至关重要. 自20世纪50年代以来,我国河口海岸管理工作经历了重大发展与变革,各涉海管理部门提供了一定的管理支撑,但也存在多个问题亟待解决. 如多个功能区划作用于同一河口水域;咸淡水水质功能类别不一致,水质指标体系存在显著差别;重要河口水环境质量评价结果长期“一片红”,不能客观反映公众、地区及国家水质目标责任主体需求;未明确河口的管理范围,造成与《环境保护法》相应的管理措施无法相适应等问题. 针对上述问题,并在详细分析河口生态环境特征的基础上,借鉴国际河口水环境管理经验,提出了科学划分河口水体单元并纳入流域管理;以河口为纽带,开展我国重点流域及海域水生态分区工作;协调多个标准在河口区域差异,同步考虑GB 3838—2002《地表水环境质量标准》和GB 3097—1997《海水水质标准》修订工作;陆海统筹,河海兼顾,充分发挥从山顶到海洋的营养盐控制策略等相关衔接建议.
关键词:  入海河口  基准标准  水体单元  水环境质量管理
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基金项目:国家环境保护公益性行业科研专项(201309007)
Problems and Countermeasures of Water Environmental Management in Estuaries
LIU Jing1,2, LIU Lusan1,2, ZHENG Binghui1,2
1.State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China ;2.Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Environment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
Abstract:
Abstract: Estuaries are bodies of water that act as transit zones through which contaminants are transported from rivers to oceans. They have specific hydrological, water quality and ecological characteristics due to the fresh-saline environment. Since the 1950s, the management of estuaries has been greatly developed, benefiting the environmental management in China. However, there are still many problems to be solved. For example, there are significant differences in estuaries due to the application of many functional zones on the same estuary, the inconsistency of functional categories and the ambiguous applicable scope of Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB 3838-2002) and Sea Water Quality Standard (GB 3097-1997), which lead to low efficiency of management. Based on detailed analysis of the characteristics of estuarine ecosystems, this paper discussed the existing problems in estuaries. Combined with the international management experience, we proposed some suggestions to improve the water environment quality management in China, including the boundary demarcation of estuarine water units under the watershed management, the partition of ecological zones from watersheds to oceans, the simultaneous revision of GB 3838-2002 and GB 3097-1997 by coordinating multiple standards and the implementation of nutrient control strategies from mountaintops to seas.
Key words:  estuarine  criteria/standards  water unit  water environment quality management