引用本文:张立坤,李令军,姜磊,赵文慧,李倩,等.北京市农业大棚冬季燃煤散烧污染排放估算[J].环境科学研究,2017,30(5):654-662.
ZHANG Likun,LI Lingjun,JIANG Lei,ZHAO Wenhui,LI Qian,et al.Estimation of Air Pollutant Emissions from Coal Burning for Agricultural Greenhouses in Winter in Beijing[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2017,30(5):654-662.]
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北京市农业大棚冬季燃煤散烧污染排放估算
张立坤1,2, 李令军1,2, 姜 磊1,2, 赵文慧1,2, 李 倩1,2
1.北京市环境保护监测中心, 北京 100048 ;2.大气颗粒物监测技术北京市重点实验室, 北京 100048
摘要:
选取北京农业种植的典型区域,使用高分辨率影像对2013年冬季、2014年夏季及2014年冬季的三期农业大棚进行了精细化提取,分析了污染物空间分布特征. 在此基础上,通过现场调查的方式获取了蔬菜、瓜果、水果、花卉以及其他类五种不同种植类别农业大棚的燃煤系数,估算了北京市典型区农业大棚的燃煤散烧量及污染物排放量. 结果表明:以面积为衡量指标,北京市农业大棚主要集中在城乡结合部,南部区域量多面广,而北部区域分布集中、规模较大,受城市扩张影响,农业大棚呈现重心向外转移的变化趋势. 选取大兴、通州、昌平以及海淀4个区作为典型区,通过实地调查发现其他类农业大棚燃煤系数最大,达到15.0 kg/(m2·a),瓜果、水果、蔬菜及花卉燃煤系数依次为8.2、3.5、3.4及1.7 kg/(m2·a). 北京典型区农业大棚燃煤量为3.4×104 t,全市农业大棚的燃煤总量约为5.2×104 t. 结合农业大棚活动水平与污染物排放因子估算2014年北京市农业大棚燃煤散烧的PM10、PM2.5、NOx及SO2排放量分别为623.7、516.2、98.3及184.0 t. 将2013—2014年冬季持续存在、夏季未被拆除的大棚定义为长期持续性大棚,核算发现,长期持续性大棚PM10、PM2.5、NOx及SO2排放量分别为399.7、482.9、76.1及142.5 t.
关键词:  北京  农业大棚  燃煤散烧  污染排放  遥感监测
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:北京公益科技项目(Z161100001116013)
Estimation of Air Pollutant Emissions from Coal Burning for Agricultural Greenhouses in Winter in Beijing
ZHANG Likun1,2, LI Lingjun1,2, JIANG Lei1,2, ZHAO Wenhui1,2, LI Qian1,2
1.Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center, Beijing 100048, China ;2.Beijing Key Laboratory of Airborne Particulate Matter Monitoring Technology, Beijing 100048, China
Abstract:
Abstract: In recent years, Beijing has vigorously promoted agricultural modernization. Greenhouses are widely used for plant breeding, but the energy consumption caused by the anti-seasonal production (mainly using loose coal) badly impacts the air quality of Beijing. A typical area in Beijing was studied using remote sensing to investigate agricultural greenhouses during the winter of 2013, the summer of 2014 and the winter of 2014. The results showed that agricultural greenhouses in the south of urban-rural-integration regional distribution were more extensive, but the northern region utility ratio was higher. The greenhouses were mainly distributed in the urban-rural-integration area, and were affected by urban expansion, with a focus tendency gradually shifting outward. Actual surveys were conducted to obtain the coal coefficient of different plant categories in typical areas in four districts, including Daxing, Tongzhou, Changping and Haidian. The results showed that the coal use coefficient of breeding-type agricultural greenhouses was the largest, 15.0 kg/(m2·a), while those of melon, fruit, vegetables and flowers were 8.2,3.5,3.4 and 1.7 kg/(m2·a), respectively. The total coal consumption of agricultural greenhouses in a typical district was estimated to be 3.4×104 t, and the calculation of the city′s agricultural greenhouses coal consumption was about 5.2×104 t. Combining agricultural greenhouse activity levels with emission factors, we estimate air pollutant emission of PM10, PM2.5, NOx and SO2 from agricultural greenhouses to be 623.7,6.2,8.3 and 184.0 t, respectively. Furthermore, the long-term greenhouses were identified as persisting between 2013-2014 winter and were not demolished during the summer. The long-term greenhouse pollutant emissions of PM10, PM2.5, NOx and SO2 were 399.7,2.9,6.1 and 142.5 t, respectively.
Key words:  Beijing  agricultural greenhouse  coal burning  pollutant emission  remote sensing