引用本文:李沈鑫,邹滨,刘兴权,方新,等.2013—2015年中国PM2.5污染状况时空变化[J].环境科学研究,2017,30(5):678-687.
LI Shenxin,ZOU Bin,LIU Xingquan,FANG Xin,et al.Pollution Status and Spatial-Temporal Variations of PM2.5 in China during 2013-2015[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2017,30(5):678-687.]
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2013—2015年中国PM2.5污染状况时空变化
李沈鑫, 邹 滨, 刘兴权, 方 新
有色金属成矿预测与地质环境监测教育部重点实验室(中南大学), 中南大学地球科学与信息物理学院, 湖南 长沙 410083
摘要:
自2013年我国首次开展全国范围PM2.5近地面监测以来,少有研究从全国空间尺度分析近3年全国PM2.5污染状况时空变化的总体特征,识别PM2.5污染加剧或缓解的空间范围,更缺乏直接对比评估国家大气污染重点防控区内外PM2.5污染特征变化的差异. 基于2013—2015年PM2.5监测数据,综合运用时空统计分析与空间插值制图手段,揭示近3年ρ(PM2.5)及不同等级污染天数的时空变化格局,并着重对比分析“三区十群”区域内外ρ(PM2.5)的变化差异. 结果表明,2013—2015年,全国持续监测的413个站点中有335个监测站点ρ(PM2.5)年均值下降,其中218个站点实现连续两年年均浓度降低,74个站点ρ(PM2.5)年均值降至符合国家二级标准;全国大部分地区ρ(PM2.5)年超标率由50%以上降至30%以下,重度污染站点占比由88.38%降至73.77%,严重污染站点占比由65.86%降至36.35%;长三角城市群、长株潭城市群、武汉及周边城市群、陕西关中城市群PM2.5污染呈现明显好转趋势;西藏、云贵高原以及海峡西岸城市群、珠三角城市群等沿海地区ρ(PM2.5)一直较低,空气质量相对优良;但与此同时,京津冀城市群、山东半岛城市群及河南中部和北部地区仍是中国PM2.5重污染区域,新疆西南部、合肥、南昌等地区逐渐形成新的PM2.5重污染格局.
关键词:  PM2.5污染  时空变化  全国  重点区域防控
DOI:
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基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0206205);国家自然科学基金项目(41201384)
Pollution Status and Spatial-Temporal Variations of PM2.5 in China during 2013-2015
LI Shenxin, ZOU Bin, LIU Xingquan, FANG Xin
Key Laboratory of Metallogenic Prediction of Nonferrous Metals and Geological Environment Monitoring (Central South University), Ministry of Education, School of Geosciences and Info-physics, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
Abstract:
Abstract: PM2.5 pollution in China has attracted serious concern worldwide since the release of observational data at stationary monitoring sites in 2013. However, few studies have focused on national scale analysis of pollution status and associated spatial-temporal variations of PM2.5 in the recent three years, let alone the identification of spatial extensions with aggravated or mitigated PM2.5 pollution and comparative assessment of the characteristic differences of PM2.5 pollution of the ‘Key Prevention and Control Regions’. Based on the nationwide PM2.5 concentrations regularly observed at the monitoring sites from 2013 to 2015, this study revealed the spatial-temporal variations of PM2.5 concentrations and pollution days at various grades in China. The entire process was implemented by using the methods of spatial statistical analysis and spatial interpolation, while including the comparison of the variation difference of areas inside or outside the ‘Key Prevention and Control Regions’. The results showed that, for all the annual PM2.5 concentrations at 335 monitoring sites, the annual PM2.5 concentrations at 218 monitoring sites continuously decreased in the years 2014 and 2015, while those concentrations at 74 sites declined to the class II China National Air Quality Standard. The exceeding-standard rates of annual PM2.5 concentration in most areas of China were reduced from 50% to 30%. The situation also existed for the monitoring sites with heavily and seriously polluted PM2.5, at which the exceeding-standard rates simultaneously dropped from 88.38% to 73.77% and from 65.86% to 36.35%, respectively. As a result, the PM2.5 pollution in Yangtze River Delta, urban agglomerations of Wuhan, Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan and Shanxi Guanzhong was clearly improved. Air quality in Tibet, Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and coastal regions such as Fujian Straits urban agglomeration and Pearl River Delta were always good. However, the eastern and southern Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Shandong urban agglomeration, as well as the central and northern Henan remained severe PM2.5 pollution, while the newly heavy pollution pattern was gradually emerging in areas such as southwestern Xinjiang, Hefei and Nanchang.
Key words:  PM2.5  spatial-temporal variations  nationwide  prevention and control of key regions