引用本文:马国霞,王晓君,於方,吴琼,彭菲,等.我国稀土资源开发利用的环境成本及空间差异特征[J].环境科学研究,2017,30(6):817-824.
MA Guoxia,WANG Xiaojun,YU Fang,WU Qiong,PEN Fei,et al.Evaluation of Environmental Costs of Rare Earth Exploitation and Analysis of their Spatial Difference Characteristics in China[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2017,30(6):817-824.]
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我国稀土资源开发利用的环境成本及空间差异特征
马国霞1, 王晓君2, 於 方1, 吴 琼1, 彭 菲1
1.环境保护部环境规划院, 北京 100012 ;2.中国农业科学院农业经济与发展研究所, 北京 100081
摘要:
稀土开发利用环境成本核算对于我国稀土定价机制改革具有重要参考价值. 利用污染普查中的典型企业、稀土年鉴等多种数据源,基于环境治理成本法,核算了2013年我国三大稀土矿区冶炼污染物产生量及环境治理成本(注:涉及“全国”的各要素范围均未包含港澳台地区),并分析了其空间分布特征. 结果表明:①我国稀土冶炼污染物空间分布特征为北方包头混合型稀土矿以大气污染为主,南方离子型稀土矿以水污染为主,尤其是氨氮污染严重. ②2013年,我国稀土冶炼环境成本总计为28 729×104元,其中废水、废气和固体废物的环境成本分别为49.8%、19.0%和31.2%. 我国稀土冶炼环境成本92.9%集中在北方轻稀土矿区,7.1%在南方离子型稀土矿区. ③我国稀土冶炼环境代价高,尤其是北方轻稀土矿. 包头混合型矿单位稀土氧化物冶炼的环境成本为4 135元/t,占氧化铈和氧化镧市场价格的38.8%和41.4%左右,南方离子型稀土矿单位稀土氧化物冶炼的环境成本为2 824元/t,占氧化钇市场价格10.9%.
关键词:  稀土  环境成本  治理成本法  空间特征
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41371533);国家环境保护公益性行业科研专项(201309043);中国博士后科学基金(2016M590164)
Evaluation of Environmental Costs of Rare Earth Exploitation and Analysis of their Spatial Difference Characteristics in China
MA Guoxia1, WANG Xiaojun2, YU Fang1, WU Qiong1, PEN Fei1
1.Chinese Academy for Environmental Planning, Beijing 100012, China ;2.Institute of Agricultural Economics and Development, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
Abstract:
Abstract: Accounting for the environmental costs of rare earth (RE) exploitation provides critical information for pricing reform of RE mining industry in China. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the environmental costs of RE refining, and to analyze their spatial difference characteristics based on the method of environmental abatement cost under the consideration of China′s RE resources characteristics in 2013(the study area does not include Hong Kong,Macao and Taiwan). Data were collected from the National Pollutants Sources Census as well as Rare Earth Statistics Yearbook 2013. The results indicated:(1) refining of RE caused severe environmental pollution:air pollution in North China and water pollution with particularly high ammonia nitrogen emission in South China due to the differences in the rare earth element concentration in minerals. (2) Environmental abatement costs of RE refining were up to 2.87×108 RMB in 2013. Depending on the type of pollution caused in which RE refining process, the environmental abatement costs were varied. Costs of pollution for water, air and solid waste were 1.43×108, 5.5×107, 8.9×107 RMB respectively. In terms of regional disparity, mines in North China accounted for 92.9% of the total environmental abatement costs, and 7.1% for South China. (3) As for environmental cost of per unit of rare earth oxides (REO), the cost for mines in North China (typically mines in Baotou City, Inner Mongolia) was 4135 RMB/t, which comprised 38.8% of the market price of lanthanum oxide and 41.4% of the market price for cerium oxide. As for the environmental abatement costs per REO, the cost for a typical REO in South China′s mines was 2824 RMB/t, accounting for 10.9% of yttrium oxide′s market price.
Key words:  rare earth  environmental cost  environmental abatement cost  spatial difference characteristics