引用本文:谢祖欣,王宏,郑秋萍,林文,吴启树,等.2015年福州市大气颗粒物污染特征[J].环境科学研究,2017,30(6):864-873.
XIE Zuxin,WANG Hong,ZHENG Qiuping,LIN Wen,WU Qishu,et al.Pollution Characteristics of Airborne Particles in Fuzhou City in 2015[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2017,30(6):864-873.]
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2015年福州市大气颗粒物污染特征
谢祖欣1, 王 宏1, 郑秋萍1, 林 文1, 吴启树2
1.福建省气象科学研究所, 福建 福州 350001 ;2.福建省气象台, 福建 福州 350001
摘要:
为了解福州市大气颗粒物污染状况,利用中国环境监测总站发布的实时大气环境监测资料,结合气象资料和HYSPLIT4轨迹模式,分析了2015年福州市大气颗粒物污染特征和典型污染过程. 结果表明:2015年福州市ρ(PM10)、ρ(PM2.5)年均值分别为55.8和29.2 μg/m3,均低于GB 3095—2012《环境空气质量标准》二级标准限值. 颗粒物浓度季节性变化特征明显,表现为冬春季高、夏秋季低的变化特征. ρ(PM2.5)/ρ(PM10)为52%,普遍低于我国东部其他大中城市;日际变化明显,受混合层高度日变化和机动车排放的影响,呈双峰形态. ρ(PM2.5)/ρ(PM10)日变化趋势与ρ(PM10)日变化特征相反,即ρ(PM10)高时ρ(PM2.5)所占比例低,ρ(PM10)低时ρ(PM2.5)所占比例高,表明早晚高峰机动车排放所造成的颗粒物污染以粗颗粒物贡献为主. 福州市颗粒物污染天气成因主要有“积累型”和“输送型”污染. 2015年1月5—6日发生的污染过程,是在一次静稳、高湿天气形势下,本地排放的污染物在不利于扩散的气象条件下聚集、二次转化,导致颗粒物浓度升高、能见度降低. 2015年1月17—19日的污染过程主要是北方污染物随冷空气输送南下,导致本地颗粒物浓度迅速升高、能见度迅速降低. 研究显示,福州市PM10和PM2.5优良率较高,颗粒物污染主要发生于冬季,污染成因包括局地累积和区域输送.
关键词:  PM10  PM2.5  区域输送  污染累积
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41461164007);福建省自然科学基金项目(2016J05091);福建省气象局青年科技专项(2016q01)
Pollution Characteristics of Airborne Particles in Fuzhou City in 2015
XIE Zuxin1, WANG Hong1, ZHENG Qiuping1, LIN Wen1, WU Qishu2
1.Fujian Meteorological Science Institute, Fuzhou 350001, China ;2.Fujian Meteorological Observatory, Fuzhou 350001, China
Abstract:
Abstract: The characteristics and main processes of typical particulate pollution in Fuzhou City in 2015 were investigated by using air quality data released by the Environmental Monitoring Station of China, meteorological data and HYSPLIT4 Trajectory Model. The analysis results showed that the annual concentrations ρ(PM10) and ρ(PM2.5) were 55.8 μg/m3 and 29.2 μg/m3 respectively, both lower than the national secondary standard. The particulate matter concentration exhibited an apparent seasonality, which was higher in winter and spring and lower in summer and autumn. The ratio ρ(PM2.5)/ρ(PM10) was 52%, which was generally lower than other cities over East China. The diurnal variation in PM concentration was significant, with two peaks during a day, which was mainly associated with the changes in boundary layer height and vehicle emissions. The ratio ρ(PM2.5)/ρ(PM10) showed an opposite variation trend to the PM concentration, with high ρ(PM10) concentration corresponding to a low ratio and vice versa. PM10 was the main particle pollution from vehicle emissions during the morning and evening peaks. Particulate pollution episodes in Fuzhou city were characterized by rapid increases in particulate concentration and reduction in visibility, and could be classified into the ‘accumulation’ and ‘transport’ types. The episode on 5-6 January 2015 was mainly attributed to the chemical formation and accumulation of pollutants under static and humid weather conditions, whereas the episode on 17-19 January was caused by southward transport of pollutants from North China along with cold air. The results showed that the air quality in Fuzhou was generally good, with particulate pollution mainly occurring in winter caused by both local accumulation and regional transport effects. The overall results suggested that there was a high rate of ‘excellent’ and ‘good’ air quality for PM10 and PM2.5 in Fuzhou. Particle pollution mostly occurred in winter, and the main causes included local accumulation and regional transport.
Key words:  PM10  PM2.5  regional transport  pollution accumulation