引用本文:黄蓓佳,赵凤,赵娟,印月,许照莹,谷超群,陈娴,等.建筑材料隐含环境影响评估[J].环境科学研究,2017,30(6):929-936.
HUANG Beijia,ZHAO Feng,ZHAO Juan,YIN Yue,XU Zhaoying,GU Chaoqun,CHEN Xian,et al.Embodied Environmental Impact of Building Materials[J].Reserrch of Environmental Science,2017,30(6):929-936.]
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建筑材料隐含环境影响评估
黄蓓佳1,2, 赵 凤1,2, 赵 娟1,2, 印 月1, 许照莹1, 谷超群1, 陈 娴1,2
1.上海理工大学环境与建筑学院, 上海 200093 ;2.上海理工大学环境与低碳科学研究中心, 上海 200093
摘要:
我国建筑业快速发展,建筑开发使用大量的建筑材料给资源和环境带来严重负荷. 以上海市为案例,运用生命周期评价方法,基于北京工业大学和Ecoinvent数据库中的建筑材料生产数据,采用ReCiPe法对上海市建筑物的材料隐含环境影响进行评估,并对未来的环境影响潜值进行预测. 结果表明:在上海市居住建筑和非居住建筑所产生的各类环境影响中人类毒性、金属损耗最为突出,约占总环境影响的45%和20%;环境影响主要来源于钢筋和木材的生产,对各类环境影响贡献度分别约为47%、17%;高层居住建筑和非居住建筑中的工厂建筑物化环境影响在各自类型中所占比例最高. 按现有趋势发展,2020年上海市居住建筑开发规模和环境影响潜值均将达到2014年的1.52倍,非居住建筑则可达到2014年的1.14倍. 针对上海市建筑材料环境影响分析结果,为有效减轻上海市建筑物的环境影响,需重点关注钢筋、铝材、木材以及混凝土的生产,识别生产过程中污染物转移环节进而改进工序;在设计阶段考虑选择环境影响负荷低的绿色建材,如混凝土砌块、高性能混凝土等,从而降低环境影响;同时,应重点关注隐含环境负荷高的高层居住和工厂建筑类建筑,通过降低建材使用量等方案降低环境影响.
关键词:  建筑材料  环境影响  上海  居住建筑  非居住建筑
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目(71403170)
Embodied Environmental Impact of Building Materials
HUANG Beijia1,2, ZHAO Feng1,2, ZHAO Juan1,2, YIN Yue1, XU Zhaoying1, GU Chaoqun1, CHEN Xian1,2
1.School of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China ;2.Environment and Low-Carbon Research Center, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China
Abstract:
Abstract: With the rapid development of China′s construction industry, the tremendous consumption of building materials heavily threatens resources and the environment. Thus, it is necessary to identify resource consumption characteristics and environmental impact situation of different types of buildings. Shanghai was selected as the target in the present study. Based on the inventory of construction materials from Beijing University of Technology and Ecoinvent database, the embodied environmental impact of building materials was evaluated and forecasted by using the ReCiPe method. The results showed that the main environmental impacts resulting from building material production is human toxicity and metal depletion, accounting for 45% and 20% of the total environmental impact respectively. Steel bar and wood appears as the two highest environmental burden materials, contributing around 47% and 17% for diverse environment impacts. An assessment for the building construction in Shanghai in 2014 indicated that the high-level dwelling buildings and factory buildings had the most severe embodied environmental impact. According to the rapid development trend of construction, by 2020, the embodied environmental impact of residential buildings is predicted to be 1.52 times that of 2014, and non-residential buildings is 1.14 times. In order to reduce the embodied environmental impact of buildings, measures for reducing the environmental pollution for producing steel, cement, aluminum and wood should be explored. Environmentally-friendly materials such as aerated concrete blocks, high performance concrete and inorganic thermal insulation mortar should be considered. Besides, since the construction of high-rise residential buildings and factory buildings is tremendous, it is especially necessary to explore measures for saving building materials for them.
Key words:  building materials  environmental impact  Shanghai  residential buildings  non-residential buildings